The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexins 20 and 21
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. This subfamily consists of SNX20, SNX21, and similar proteins. SNX20 interacts with P-Selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1), a surface-expressed mucin that acts as a ligand for the selectin family of adhesion proteins. It may function in the sorting and cycling of PSGL-1 into endosomes. SNX21, also called SNX-L, is distinctly and highly-expressed in fetal liver and may be involved in protein sorting and degradation during embryonic liver development.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Comment:based on the structures of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate bound to other members of this superfamily
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.