1WNB,1EYY,2BJA,2VRO,1BXS,1AD3,1T90,2JG7,3B4W,1BPW,3FG0,2O2Q,2D4E,2IMP,2ESD,3EK1,1UXU,2J6L,1CW3


Conserved Protein Domain Family
ALDH

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cd07078: ALDH 
Click on image for an interactive view with Cn3D
NAD(P)+ dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase family
The aldehyde dehydrogenase family (ALDH) of NAD(P)+ dependent enzymes, in general, oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids and play an important role in detoxification. Besides aldehyde detoxification, many ALDH isozymes possess multiple additional catalytic and non-catalytic functions such as participating in metabolic pathways, or as binding proteins, or as osmoregulants, to mention a few. The enzyme has three domains, a NAD(P)+ cofactor-binding domain, a catalytic domain, and a bridging domain; and the active enzyme is generally either homodimeric or homotetrameric. The catalytic mechanism is proposed to involve cofactor binding, resulting in a conformational change and activation of an invariant catalytic cysteine nucleophile. The cysteine and aldehyde substrate form an oxyanion thiohemiacetal intermediate resulting in hydride transfer to the cofactor and formation of a thioacylenzyme intermediate. Hydrolysis of the thioacylenzyme and release of the carboxylic acid product occurs, and in most cases, the reduced cofactor dissociates from the enzyme. The evolutionary phylogenetic tree of ALDHs appears to have an initial bifurcation between what has been characterized as the classical aldehyde dehydrogenases, the ALDH family (ALDH) and extended family members or aldehyde dehydrogenase-like (ALDH-like) proteins. The ALDH proteins are represented by enzymes which share a number of highly conserved residues necessary for catalysis and cofactor binding and they include such proteins as retinal dehydrogenase, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenases, alpha-ketoglutaric semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase and succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Included in this larger group are all human, Arabidopsis, Tortula, fungal, protozoan, and Drosophila ALDHs identified in families ALDH1 through ALDH22 with the exception of families ALDH18, ALDH19, and ALDH20 which are present in the ALDH-like group.
Statistics
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PSSM-Id: 143397
View PSSM: cd07078
Aligned: 71 rows
Threshold Bit Score: 260.603
Threshold Setting Gi: 8569422
Created: 31-Dec-2008
Updated: 2-Oct-2020
Structure
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Program:
Drawing:
Aligned Rows:
 
Conserved site includes 4 residues -Click on image for an interactive view with Cn3D
Feature 1:catalytic residues [active site]
Evidence:

Sequence Alignment
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Format: Row Display: Color Bits: Type Selection:
Feature 1                                                                                      
1WNB_B      63 DAAVRAADAAFAewg-qtTPKVRAECLLKLADVIEeNGQVFAELESRncgkp-lhsaFNDEIPAIVDVFRFFAGAarcln 140  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A      33 NQAATAAAKVARdfr-rlNNSKRASLLRTIASELEaRSDDIIARAHLetal--pevrLTGEIARTANQLRLFADVvnsgs 109  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A      77 EAALEAAWKAFKtwk-dwPQEDRSRLLLKAAALMRrRKRELEATLVYevgk--nwveASADVAEAIDFIEYYARAalryr 153  Thermus thermoph...
2VRO_B      44 ARAFSFAREDGGaalralTYAQRAARLADIVKLLQaKRGDYYAIATAnsgt--trndSAVDIDGGIFTLSYYAKLgaslg 121  Burkholderia xen...
2JG7_A      60 EETVQKTREAWKmwa-diPAPKRGEIVRQIGDALRkKIKVLGSLVSLemgk--iyveGVGEVQEYVDVCDYAVGLsrmig 136  black porgy
1UXU_A      57 ERTLDVLFKRGRwsardmPGTERLAVLRKAADIIErNLDVFAEVLVMnagk--pksaAVGEVKAAVDRLRLAELDlkkig 134  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A      62 EETVKKAREAWKiwa-diPAPKRGEIVRQIGDALReKIQVLGSLVSLemgk--ilveGVGEVQEYVDICDYAVGLsrmig 138  human
Q7ADE6      40 GQACRAARAAFPrwa-rlSFAERQAVVERFAGLLErNKGELTAIIARetgk--prweAATELTAMINKIAISIKAyhvrt 116  Escherichia coli...
NP_719311  603 EQAVSSAHAAFGswt-rtPVEVRASALQKLADLLEeNREELIALCTReagk--siqdGIDEVREAVDFCRYYAVQakklm 679  Shewanella oneid...
P30038     103 NKAIEAALAARKewd-lkPIADRAQIFLKAADMLSgPRRAEILAKTMvgqgktviqaEIDAAAELIDFFRFNAKYavele 181  human
Feature 1                                            #                                         
1WNB_B     141 glaa--------geyleghtSMIRRDPL-GVVASIAPWNYPl--MMAAWKLAPALAAGNCVVLKPSEitpltALKLAELA 209  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A     110 yhqaildtpnptraplpkpdIRRQQIAL-GPVAVFGASNFPlafSAAGGDTASALAAGCPVIVKGHTahpgtSQIVAECI 188  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A     154 ypav-------evvpypgedNESFYVPL-GAGVVIAPWNFPv--AIFTGMIVGPVAVGNTVIAKPAEdavvvGAKVFEIF 223  Thermus thermoph...
2VRO_B     122 evhalrdgsaeslskdrsfsAQHVLSPTrGVALFINAFNFPs--WGLWEKAAPALLSGVPVIVKPATatawlTQRMVADV 199  Burkholderia xen...
2JG7_A     137 gpvl--------pserpghaLIEQWNPV-GLVGIITAFNFPv--AVYGWNNAIALTCGNVCLWKGAPttpltSVAVTKIV 205  black porgy
1UXU_A     135 gdyipg----dwtydtleteGLVRREPL-GVVAAITPFNYPl--FDAVNKITYSFIYGNAVVVKPSIsdplpAAMAVKAL 207  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A     139 gpil--------psersghaLIEQWNPV-GLVGIITAFNFPv--AVYGWNNAIAMICGNVCLWKGAPttsliSVAVTKII 207  human
Q7ADE6     117 geq---------rsempdgaASLRHRPH-GVLAVFGPYNFPg--HLPNGHIVPALLAGNTIIFKPSEltpwsGEAVMRLW 184  Escherichia coli...
NP_719311  680 skpe-------llpgptgelNELFLQGR-GVFVCISPWNFPl--AIFLGQVSAALAAGNTVVAKPAEqtsiiGYRAVQLA 749  Shewanella oneid...
P30038     182 gqq---------pisvppstNSTVYRGLeGFVAAISPFNFT---AIGGNLAGAPALMGNVVLWKPSDtamlaSYAVYRIL 249  human
Feature 1                                                                           #          
1WNB_B     210 Kdif-----pagVVNILFgrgktvgdPLTGHpk-vrMVSLTGSIATGEHIISHtass------ikrTHMELGGKAPVIVF 277  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A     189 EqalkqeqlpqaIFTLLQgnqralgqALVSHpe-ikAVGFTGSVGGGRALFNLaherp----epipFYGELGAINPTFIF 263  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A     224 Heagf----ppgVVNFLPgvgeevgaYLVEHpr-irFINFTGSLEVGLKIYEAagrlapgqtwfkrAYVETGGKDAIIVD 298  Thermus thermoph...
2VRO_B     200 Vdagi---lppgALSIICgs----saGLLDQirsfdVVSFTGSADTAATLRAHpafvq----rgarLNVEADSLNSAILC 268  Burkholderia xen...
2JG7_A     206 AevleqnnlpgaICSMTCggad-igtAMAKDer-vdLLSFTGSTHVGKMVAMMvqer------fgrKLLELGGNNAIIVF 277  black porgy
1UXU_A     208 Ldagf----ppdAIALLNlpgk-eaeKIVADdr-vaAVSFTGSTEVGERVVKVggv--------kqYVMELGGGDPAIVL 273  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A     208 AkvlednklpgaICSLTCggad-igtAMAKDer-vnLLSFTGSTQVGKQVGLMvqer------fgrSLLELGGNNAIIAF 279  human
Q7ADE6     185 Qqagl----ppgVLNLVQggce-tgqALSALed-ldGLLFTGSANTGYQLHRQlsgq-----pekiLALEMGGNNPLIID 253  Escherichia coli...
NP_719311  750 Hqagi----ptdVLQYLPgtgatvgnALTADer-igGVCFTGSTGTAKLINRTlanre---gaiipLIAETGGQNAMVVD 821  Shewanella oneid...
P30038     250 Reagl----ppnIIQFVPadgplfgdTVTSSeh-lcGINFTGSVPTFKHLWKQvaqnldrfhtfprLAGECGGKNFHFVH 324  human
Feature 1                               #  #                                                   
1WNB_B     278 Dd-----aDIEAVVEGVRTFGYYnaGQDCTAACRIYAQkg-iYDTLVEKLGAAVAtlksgapd-destelgPLSSlAHLE 350  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A     264 Psa---mrAKADLADQFVASMTMgcGQFCTKPGVVFALntpeTQAFIETAQSLIRqqs-----------psTLLTpGIRD 329  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A     299 Et-----aDFDLAAEGVVVSAYGfqGQKXSAASRLILTqg-aYEPVLERVLKRAErlsvgpa--eenpdlgPVVSaEQER 370  Thermus thermoph...
2VRO_B     269 AdatpdtpAFDLFIKEVVREMTVksGQKCTAIRRAFVPea-aLEPVLEALKAKLAkitvgnpr-ndavrmgSLVSrEQYE 346  Burkholderia xen...
2JG7_A     278 Ed-----aDLNLVVPSAVFASVGtaGQRCTTTRRLMLHes-vHDAVVERIAKAYKqvrigdpw-dpstlygPLHTkQAVD 350  black porgy
1UXU_A     274 Ed-----aDLDLAADKIARGIYSyaGQRCDAIKLVLAErp-vYGKLVEEVAKRLSslrvgdpr-dptvdvgPLISpSAVD 346  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A     280 Ed-----aDLSLVVPSALFAAVGtaGQRCTTARRLFIHes-iHDEVVNRLKKAYAqirvgnpw-dpnvlygPLHTkQAVS 352  human
Q7ADE6     254 Ev-----aDIDAAVHLTIQSAFVtaGQRCTCARRVLLKsgaqGDAFLARLVAVSQrltpgnwd-depqpfiGGLIsEQAA 327  Escherichia coli...
NP_719311  822 St-----sQPEQVVNDVVSSSFTsaGQRCSALRVLFLQed-iADRVIDVLQGAMDelvignps-siktdvgPVIDaTAKA 894  Shewanella oneid...
P30038     325 Rs-----aDVESVVSGTLRSAFEygGQKCSACSRLYVPhs-lWPQIKGRLLEEHSrikvgdpaedfgtffsAVIDaKSFA 398  human
Feature 1                                                                                      
1WNB_B     351 RVGKAVEeakatghiKVITggekrkg------ngyyyapTLLAgalqdd---aivqkEVFGPVVSVTPfd--------ne 413  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A     330 SYQSQVVsrgsddgiDVTFsqaes----------pcvasALFVtssenwrkhpaweeEIFGPQSLIVVce--------nv 391  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A     371 KVLSYIEigk--negQLVLggkrleg------egyfiapTVFTevppka---riaqeEIFGPVLSVIRvk--------df 431  Thermus thermoph...
2VRO_B     347 NVLAGIAalr--eeaVLAYdssavplidadaniaacvapHLFVvndpdna-tllhdvEVFGPVASVAPyrvttdtnalpe 423  Burkholderia xen...
2JG7_A     351 QYLAAIEqakq-qggTLVCggkvmdr------pgnyvepTIITglahda---pivhtETFVPILYVLKfk--------te 412  black porgy
1UXU_A     347 EMMAAIEdave-kggRVLAggrrlg--------ptyvqpTFVEapadrvkdmvlykrEVFAPVALAVEvk--------dl 409  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A     353 MFLGAVEeakk-eggTVVYggkvmdr------pgnyvepTIVTglghda---siahtETFAPILYVFKfq--------ne 414  human
Q7ADE6     328 QQVFTAWqqle-amgGRTLlaprllqa-----gtslltpGIIEmtgva----gvpdeEVFGPLLRVWRyd--------sf 389  Escherichia coli...
NP_719311  895 NLDAHIDhik--qvgKLIKqmslpagt----enghfvapTAVEidsik-----vlekEHFGPILHVIRyka------sel 957  Shewanella oneid...
P30038     399 RIKKWLEharsspslTILAggkcdds------vgyfvepCIVEskdpqe---pimkeEIFGPVLSVYVypd------dky 463  human
Feature 1                                                                                      
1WNB_B     414 EQVVNWANDSqygLASSVWTkd--vGRAHRVSAr--lQYGCTWVNthfml---------vsemPHGGQkl----sgYGKD 476  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A     392 ADMLSLSEMLagsLTATIHAteedyPQVSQLIPrleeIAGRLVFNgwptgv------evgyamVHGGPypasthsaSTSV 465  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A     432 AEALEVANDTpygLTGGVYSrk--rEHLEWARRe--fHVGNLYFNrkitga-------lvgvqPFGGFkls---gtNAKT 497  Thermus thermoph...
2VRO_B     424 AHAVALARRGqgsLVASIYSnd--dAHLGRLALeladSHGRVHAIspsvqhsqtghgnvmpmsLHGGPgra---ggGEEL 498  Burkholderia xen...
2JG7_A     413 EEAFAWNNEVqqgLSSSIFTkd--lGRVFRWLGpkgsDCGIVNVNiptsg--------aeiggAFGGEkh----tgGGRE 478  black porgy
1UXU_A     410 DQAIELANGRpygLDAAVFGrd--vVKIRRAVRl--lEVGAIYINdmprh--------gigyyPFGGRkk----sgVFRE 473  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A     415 EEVFAWNNEVkqgLSSSIFTkd--lGRIFRWLGpkgsDCGIVNVNiptsg--------aeiggAFGGEkh----tgGGRE 480  human
Q7ADE6     390 EEAIRMANNTrfgLSCGLVSpe--rEKFDQLLLe--aRAGIVNWNkpltg--------aastaPFGGIga-----sGNHR 452  Escherichia coli...
NP_719311  958 AHVIDEINSTgfgLTLGIHSrn--eGHALEVADk--vNVGNVYINrnqiga-------vvgvqPFGGQgls---gtGPKA 1023 Shewanella oneid...
P30038     464 KETLQLVDSTtsyGLTGAVFsq-dkDVVQEATKvlrnAAGNFYINdkstgs-------ivgqqPFGGAras---gtNDKP 532  human
Feature 1                       
1WNB_B     477 msLYGLEDYTVVRHVMV 493  Escherichia coli
1EYY_A     466 g-AEAIHRWLRPVAYQA 481  Vibrio harveyi
2BJA_A     498 gaLDYLRLFLEMKAVAE 514  Thermus thermophilus
2VRO_B     499 ggLRALAFYHRRSAIQA 515  Burkholderia xenovorans
2JG7_A     479 sgSDSWKQYMRRSTCTI 495  black porgy
1UXU_A     474 giGYAVEAVTAYKTIVF 490  Thermoproteus tenax
2J6L_A     481 sgSDAWKQYMRRSTCTI 497  human
Q7ADE6     453 psAWYAADYCAWPMASL 469  Escherichia coli O157:H7 str. EC508
NP_719311 1024 ggPHYLTRFVTEKTRTN 1040 Shewanella oneidensis MR-1
P30038     533 ggPHYILRWTSPQVIKE 549  human

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