NAD(P)+ dependent aldehyde dehydrogenase familyThe aldehyde dehydrogenase family (ALDH) of NAD(P)+ dependent enzymes, in general, oxidize a wide range of endogenous and exogenous aliphatic and aromatic aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids and play an important role in detoxification. Besides aldehyde detoxification, many ALDH isozymes possess multiple additional catalytic and non-catalytic functions such as participating in metabolic pathways, or as binding proteins, or as osmoregulants, to mention a few. The enzyme has three domains, a NAD(P)+ cofactor-binding domain, a catalytic domain, and a bridging domain; and the active enzyme is generally either homodimeric or homotetrameric. The catalytic mechanism is proposed to involve cofactor binding, resulting in a conformational change and activation of an invariant catalytic cysteine nucleophile. The cysteine and aldehyde substrate form an oxyanion thiohemiacetal intermediate resulting in hydride transfer to the cofactor and formation of a thioacylenzyme intermediate. Hydrolysis of the thioacylenzyme and release of the carboxylic acid product occurs, and in most cases, the reduced cofactor dissociates from the enzyme. The evolutionary phylogenetic tree of ALDHs appears to have an initial bifurcation between what has been characterized as the classical aldehyde dehydrogenases, the ALDH family (ALDH) and extended family members or aldehyde dehydrogenase-like (ALDH-like) proteins. The ALDH proteins are represented by enzymes which share a number of highly conserved residues necessary for catalysis and cofactor binding and they include such proteins as retinal dehydrogenase, 10-formyltetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase, non-phosphorylating glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenases, alpha-ketoglutaric semialdehyde dehydrogenase, alpha-aminoadipic semialdehyde dehydrogenase, coniferyl aldehyde dehydrogenase and succinate-semialdehyde dehydrogenase. Included in this larger group are all human, Arabidopsis, Tortula, fungal, protozoan, and Drosophila ALDHs identified in families ALDH1 through ALDH22 with the exception of families ALDH18, ALDH19, and ALDH20 which are present in the ALDH-like group.