DNA-binding domain of the TR2 and TR4 (human testicular receptor 2 and 4) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
DNA-binding domain of the TR2 and TR4 (human testicular receptor 2 and 4) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers. Each zinc finger contains a group of four Cys residues which coordinates a single zinc atom. TR2 and TR4 interact with specific DNA sites upstream of the target gene and modulate the rate of transcriptional initiation. TR4 and TR2 are orphan nuclear receptors; the physiological ligand is as yet unidentified. TR2 is abundantly expressed in the androgen-sensitive prostate. TR4 transcripts are expressed in many tissues, including central nervous system, adrenal gland, spleen, thyroid gland, and prostate. It has been shown that human TR2 binds to a wide spectrum of natural hormone response elements (HREs) with distinct affinities suggesting that TR2 may cross-talk with other gene expression regulation systems. The genes responding to TR2 or TR4 include genes that are regulated by retinoic acid receptor, vitamin D receptor, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor. TR4/2 binds to HREs as dimers. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, TR2-like receptors have a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).