DNA-binding domain of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) family is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
DNA-binding domain of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) family is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers. Each zinc finger contains a group of four Cys residues which co-ordinates a single zinc atom. FXR interacts with specific DNA sites upstream of the target gene and modulates the rate of transcriptional initiation. FXR is a member of the nuclear receptor family of ligand activated transcription factors. Bile acids are endogenous ligands for FXRs. Upon binding of a ligand, FXR binds to FXR response element (FXRE), which is an inverted repeat of TGACCT spaced by one nucleotide, either as a monomer or as a heterodimer with retinoid X receptor (RXR), to regulate the expression of various genes involved in bile acid, lipid, and glucose metabolism. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, FXR has a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).