DNA-binding domain of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers
DNA-binding domain of chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factors (COUP-TFs) is composed of two C4-type zinc fingers. Each zinc finger contains a group of four Cys residues which co-ordinates a single zinc atom. COUP-TFs are orphan members of the steroid/thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. They are expressed in many tissues and are involved in the regulation of several important biological processes, such as neurogenesis, organogenesis, cell fate determination, and metabolic homeostasis. COUP-TFs homodimerize or heterodimerize with retinoid X receptor (RXR) and a few other nuclear receptors and bind to a variety of response elements that are composed of imperfect AGGTCA direct or inverted repeats with various spacings. COUP-TFs are generally considered to be repressors of transcription for other nuclear hormone receptors such as retinoic acid receptor (RAR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), vitamin D receptor (VDR), peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR), and hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 (HNF4). Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, COUP-TFs have a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).