Ligand binding domain of Estrogen receptor, which are activated by the hormone 17beta-estradiol (estrogen)
The ligand binding domain (LBD) of Estrogen receptor (ER): Estrogen receptor, a member of nuclear receptor superfamily, is activated by the hormone estrogen. Estrogen regulates many physiological processes including reproduction, bone integrity, cardiovascular health, and behavior. The main mechanism of action of the estrogen receptor is as a transcription factor by binding to the estrogen response element of target genes upon activation by estrogen and then recruiting coactivator proteins which are responsible for the transcription of target genes. Additionally some ERs may associate with other membrane proteins and can be rapidly activated by exposure of cells to estrogen. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, ER has a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD). The C-terminal LBD also contains AF-2 activation motif, the dimerization motif, and part of the nuclear localization region. Estrogen receptor has been linked to aging, cancer, obesity and other diseases.