The ligand binding domain of thyroid hormone receptor, a members of a superfamily of nuclear receptors.
The ligand binding domain (LBD) of thyroid hormone receptors: Thyroid hormone receptors are members of a superfamily of nuclear receptors. Thyroid hormone receptors (TR) mediate the actions of thyroid hormones, which play critical roles in growth, development, and homeostasis in mammals. They regulate overall metabolic rate, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and heart rate, and affect mood. TRs are expressed from two separate genes (alpha and beta) in human and each gene generates two isoforms of the receptor through differential promoter usage or splicing. TRalpha functions in the heart to regulate heart rate and rhythm and TRbeta is active in the liver and other tissues. The unliganded TRs function as transcription repressors, by binding to thyroid hormone response elements (TRE) predominantly as homodimers, or as heterodimers with retinoid X-receptors (RXR), and being associated with a complex of proteins containing corepressor proteins. Ligand binding promotes corepressor dissociation and binding of a coactivator to activate transcription. Like other members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, TR has a central well conserved DNA binding domain (DBD), a variable N-terminal domain, a flexible hinge and a C-terminal ligand binding domain (LBD).