The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of SNARE proteins from fungi
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. This subfamily is composed of fungal proteins similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Vam7p. They contain an N-terminal PX domain and a C-terminal SNARE domain. The SNARE (Soluble NSF attachment protein receptor) family of proteins are integral membrane proteins that serve as key factors for vesicular trafficking. Vam7p is anchored at the vacuolar membrane through the specific interaction of its PX domain with phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) present in bilayers. It plays an essential role in vacuole fusion. The PX domain is involved in targeting of proteins to PI-enriched membranes, and may also be involved in protein-protein interaction.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Comment:based on the structures of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate bound to other members of this superfamily
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.