The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexin 19
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. SNX19 contains an N-terminal PXA domain, a central PX domain, and a C-terminal domain that is conserved in some SNXs. These domains are also found in SNX13 and SNX14, which also contain a regulator of G protein signaling (RGS) domain in between the PXA and PX domains. SNX19 interacts with IA-2, a major autoantigen found in type-1 diabetes. It inhibits the conversion of phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] to PI(3,4,5)P3, which leads in the decrease of protein phosphorylation in the Akt signaling pathway, resulting in apoptosis. SNX19 may also be implicated in coronary heart disease and thyroid oncocytic tumors.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Comment:based on the structures of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate bound to other members of this superfamily
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.