The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Bem1p
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. Members of this subfamily bear similarity to Saccharomyces cerevisiae Bem1p, containing two Src Homology 3 (SH3) domains at the N-terminus, a central PX domain, and a C-terminal PB1 domain. Bem1p is a scaffolding protein that is critical for proper Cdc42p activation during bud formation in yeast. During budding and mating, Bem1p migrates to the plasma membrane where it can serve as an adaptor for Cdc42p and some other proteins. Bem1p also functions as an effector of the G1 cyclin Cln3p and the cyclin-dependent kinase Cdc28p in promoting vacuolar fusion. The PX domain is involved in targeting of proteins to PI-enriched membranes, and may also be involved in protein-protein interaction. The PX domain of Bem1p specifically binds phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PI4P).
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.