The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of the p47phox subunit of NADPH oxidase
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. p47phox is a cytosolic subunit of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase complex (also called Nox2 or gp91phox), which plays a key role in the ability of phagocytes to defend against bacterial infections. NADPH oxidase catalyzes the transfer of electrons from NADPH to oxygen during phagocytosis forming superoxide and reactive oxygen species. p47phox is required for activation of NADH oxidase and plays a role in translocation. It contains an N-terminal PX domain, two Src Homology 3 (SH3) domains, and a C-terminal domain that contains PxxP motifs for binding SH3 domains. The PX domain of p47phox is unique in that it contains two distinct basic pockets on the membrane-binding surface: one preferentially binds phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate [PI(3,4)P2] and is analogous to the PI3P-binding pocket of p40phox, while the other binds anionic phospholipids such as phosphatidic acid or phosphatidylserine. Simultaneous binding in the two pockets results in increased membrane affinity. The PX domain of p47phox is also involved in protein-protein interaction.
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.