The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of the Imidazoline Receptor Antisera-Selected
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide binding (PI) module present in many proteins with diverse functions such as cell signaling, vesicular trafficking, protein sorting, and lipid modification, among others. Imidazoline Receptor Antisera-Selected (IRAS), also called nischarin, contains an N-terminal PX domain, leucine rich repeats, and a predicted coiled coil domain. The PX domain of IRAS binds to phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate in membranes. Together with the coiled coil domain, it is essential for the localization of IRAS to endosomes. IRAS has been shown to interact with integrin and inhibit cell migration. Its interaction with alpha5 integrin causes a redistribution of the receptor from the cell surface to endosomal structures, suggesting that IRAS may function as a sorting nexin (SNX) which regulates the endosomal trafficking of integrin. SNXs make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Comment:based on the structures of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate bound to other members of this superfamily
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.