The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of SNX-like proteins
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. Some SNXs are localized in early endosome structures such as clathrin-coated pits, while others are located in late structures of the endocytic pathway. This subfamily is composed of uncharacterized proteins, predominantly from plants, with similarity to sorting nexins. A few members show a similar domain architecture as a subfamily of sorting nexins, containing a Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain, which detects membrane curvature, C-terminal to the PX domain. The PX-BAR structural unit is known to determine specific membrane localization.
Feature 1:phosphoinositide binding site [chemical binding site]
Comment:A majority of PX domain containing proteins binds phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) at this site. In some cases, other phosphoinositides, such as PI4P or PI(3,4)P2, are the preferred substrates.
Comment:based on the structures of phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate bound to other members of this superfamily
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.