The phosphoinositide binding Phox Homology domain of Sorting Nexins 9 and 18
The PX domain is a phosphoinositide (PI) binding module present in many proteins with diverse functions. Sorting nexins (SNXs) make up the largest group among PX domain containing proteins. They are involved in regulating membrane traffic and protein sorting in the endosomal system. The PX domain of SNXs binds PIs and targets the protein to PI-enriched membranes. SNXs differ from each other in PI-binding specificity and affinity, and the presence of other protein-protein interaction domains, which help determine subcellular localization and specific function in the endocytic pathway. This subfamily consists of SNX9, SNX18, and similar proteins. They contain an N-terminal Src Homology 3 (SH3) domain, a PX domain, and a C-terminal Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs (BAR) domain. SNX9 is localized to plasma membrane endocytic sites and acts primarily in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, while SNX18 is localized to peripheral endosomal structures, and acts in a trafficking pathway that is clathrin-independent but relies on AP-1 and PACS1.
Comment:Two basic residues are key in binding with phosphoinositides: one forms hydrogen bonds with the 3-phosphate of PI(3)P and another forms hydrogen bonds with the 4-and 5-hydroxyl groups of PI(3)P.