Iron-sulfur binding ferredoxin reductase (FNR) proteins combine the FAD and NAD(P) binding regions of FNR with an iron-sulfur binding cluster domain. Ferredoxin-NADP+ (oxido)reductase is an FAD-containing enzyme that catalyzes the reversible electron transfer between NADP(H) and electron carrier proteins such as ferredoxin and flavodoxin. Isoforms of these flavoproteins (i.e. having a non-covalently bound FAD as a prosthetic group) are present in chloroplasts, mitochondria, and bacteria in which they participate in a wide variety of redox metabolic pathways. The C-terminal portion of the FAD/NAD binding domain contains most of the NADP(H) binding residues and the N-terminal sub-domain interacts non-covalently with the isoalloxazine rings of the flavin molecule which lies largely in a large gap betweed the two domains. In this ferredoxin like sub-group, the FAD/NAD sub-domains is typically fused to a C-terminal iron-sulfur binding domain. Iron-sulfur proteins play an important role in electron transfer processes and in various enzymatic reactions. The family includes plant and algal ferredoxins which act as electron carriers in photosynthesis and ferredoxins which participate in redox chains from bacteria to mammals. Ferredoxin reductase first accepts one electron from reduced ferredoxin to form a flavin semiquinone intermediate. The enzyme then accepts a second electron to form FADH2 which then transfers two electrons and a proton to NADP+ to form NADPH.