Immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) and similar proteins
The members here are composed of the immunoglobulin (Ig)-like domain of semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) and similar proteins. Sema4D is a Class IV semaphorin. Semaphorins are classified based on structural features additional to the Sema domain. Sema4D has extracellular Sema and Ig domains, a transmembrane domain, and a short cytoplasmic domain. Sema4D plays a part in the development of GABAergic synapses. Sema4D in addition is an immune semaphorin. It is abundant on resting T cells; its expression is weak on resting B cells and antigen presenting cells (APCs), but is upregulated by various stimuli. The receptor used by Sema4D in the immune system is CD72. Sem4D enhances the activation of B cells and DCs through binding CD72, perhaps by reducing CD72s inhibitory signals. The receptor used by Sema4D in the non-lymphatic tissues is plexin-B1. Sem4D is anchored to the cell surface but its extracellular domain can be released from the cell surface by a metalloprotease-dependent process. Sem4D may mediate its effects in its membrane-bound form and/or its cleaved form.