Immunoglobulin domain of human Synaptic Adhesion-Like Molecule 5 (SALM5) and similar proteins; member of the I-set of IgSF domains
This group contains the immunoglobulin domain of human Synaptic Adhesion-Like Molecule 5 (SALM5) and similar proteins. The SALM (for synaptic adhesion-like molecules; also known as Lrfn for leucine-rich repeat and fibronectin type III domain containing) family of adhesion molecules consists of five known members: SALM1/Lrfn2, SALM2/Lrfn1, SALM3/Lrfn4, SALM4/Lrfn3, and SALM5/Lrfn5. SALMs share a similar domain structure, containing leucine-rich repeats (LRRs), an immunoglobulin (Ig) domain, and a fibronectin III (FNIII) domain, followed by a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal PDZ-binding motif. SALM5 is implicated in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and schizophrenia, induces presynaptic differentiation in contacting axons. SALM5 interacts with the Ig domains of LAR (Leukocyte common Antigen-Related) family receptor protein tyrosine phosphatases (LAR-RPTPs; LAR, PTPdelta, and PTPsigma). In addition, PTPdelta is implicated in ASDs, ADHD, bipolar disorder, and restless leg syndrome. Studies have shown that LAR-RPTPs are novel and splicing-dependent presynaptic ligands for SALM5, and that they mediate SALM5-dependent presynaptic differentiation. Furthermore, SALM5 maintains AMPA receptor (AMPAR)-mediated excitatory synaptic transmission through mechanisms involving the interaction of SALM5 with LAR-RPTPs. This group belongs to the I-set of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) domains, having A-B-E-D strands in one beta-sheet and A'-G-F-C-C' in the other. Like the V-set Ig domains, members of the I-set have a discontinuous A strand but lack a C" strand.