Members of the peptidase S53 (sedolisin) family include endopeptidases and exopeptidases. The S53 family contains a catalytic triad Glu/Asp/Ser with an additional acidic residue Asp in the oxyanion hole, similar to that of Asn in subtilisin. The stability of these enzymes may be enhanced by calcium, some members have been shown to bind up to 4 ions via binding sites with different affinity. Some members of this clan contain disulfide bonds. These enzymes can be intra- and extracellular, some function at extreme temperatures and pH values. Characterized sedolisins include Kumamolisin, an extracellular calcium-dependent thermostable endopeptidase from Bacillus. The enzyme is synthesized with a 188 amino acid N-terminal preprotein region which is cleaved after the extraction into the extracellular space with low pH. One kumamolysin paralog, kumamolisin-As, is believed to be a collagenase. TPP1 is a serine protease that functions as a tripeptidyl exopeptidase as well as an endopeptidase. Less is known about PSCP from Pseudomonas which is thought to be an aspartic proteinase.