RSR1/Bud1p is a member of the Rap subfamily of the Ras family that is found in fungi. In budding yeasts, RSR1 is involved in selecting a site for bud growth on the cell cortex, which directs the establishment of cell polarization. The Rho family GTPase cdc42 and its GEF, cdc24, then establish an axis of polarized growth by organizing the actin cytoskeleton and secretory apparatus at the bud site. It is believed that cdc42 interacts directly with RSR1 in vivo. In filamentous fungi, polar growth occurs at the tips of hypha and at novel growth sites along the extending hypha. In Ashbya gossypii, RSR1 is a key regulator of hyphal growth, localizing at the tip region and regulating in apical polarization of the actin cytoskeleton. Most Ras proteins contain a lipid modification site at the C-terminus, with a typical sequence motif CaaX, where a = an aliphatic amino acid and X = any amino acid. Lipid binding is essential for membrane attachment, a key feature of most Ras proteins.