Rap2 family GTPase consists of Rap2a, Rap2b, and Rap2cThe Rap2 subgroup is part of the Rap subfamily of the Ras family. It consists of Rap2a, Rap2b, and Rap2c. Both isoform 3 of the human mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4) and Traf2- and Nck-interacting kinase (TNIK) are putative effectors of Rap2 in mediating the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) to regulate the actin cytoskeleton. In human platelets, Rap2 was shown to interact with the cytoskeleton by binding the actin filaments. In embryonic Xenopus development, Rap2 is necessary for the Wnt/beta-catenin signaling pathway. The Rap2 interacting protein 9 (RPIP9) is highly expressed in human breast carcinomas and correlates with a poor prognosis, suggesting a role for Rap2 in breast cancer oncogenesis. Rap2b, but not Rap2a, Rap2c, Rap1a, or Rap1b, is expressed in human red blood cells, where it is believed to be involved in vesiculation. A number of additional effector proteins for Rap2 have been identified, including the RalGEFs RalGDS, RGL, and Rlf, which also interact with Rap1 and Ras. Most Ras proteins contain a lipid modification site at the C-terminus, with a typical sequence motif CaaX, where a = an aliphatic amino acid and X = any amino acid. Lipid binding is essential for membrane attachment, a key feature of most Ras proteins. Due to the presence of truncated sequences in this CD, the lipid modification site is not available for annotation.