Arf-like tumor suppressor gene 1 (ARLTS1 or Arl11)
ARLTS1 (Arf-like tumor suppressor gene 1), also known as Arl11, is a member of the Arf family of small GTPases that is believed to play a major role in apoptotic signaling. ARLTS1 is widely expressed and functions as a tumor suppressor gene in several human cancers. ARLTS1 is a low-penetrance suppressor that accounts for a small percentage of familial melanoma or familial chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). ARLTS1 inactivation seems to occur most frequently through biallelic down-regulation by hypermethylation of the promoter. In breast cancer, ARLTS1 alterations were typically a combination of a hypomorphic polymorphism plus loss of heterozygosity. In a case of thyroid adenoma, ARLTS1 alterations were polymorphism plus promoter hypermethylation. The nonsense polymorphism Trp149Stop occurs with significantly greater frequency in familial cancer cases than in sporadic cancer cases, and the Cys148Arg polymorphism is associated with an increase in high-risk familial breast cancer.