C2 domain in Munc13 (mammalian uncoordinated) proteins; fungal group
C2-like domains are thought to be involved in phospholipid binding in a Ca2+ independent manner in both Unc13 and Munc13. Caenorabditis elegans Unc13 has a central domain with sequence similarity to PKC, which includes C1 and C2-related domains. Unc13 binds phorbol esters and DAG with high affinity in a phospholipid manner. Mutations in Unc13 results in abnormal neuronal connections and impairment in cholinergic neurotransmission in the nematode. Munc13 is the mammalian homolog which are expressed in the brain. There are 3 isoforms (Munc13-1, -2, -3) and are thought to play a role in neurotransmitter release and are hypothesized to be high-affinity receptors for phorbol esters. Unc13 and Munc13 contain both C1 and C2 domains. There are two C2 related domains present, one central and one at the carboxyl end. Munc13-1 contains a third C2-like domain. Munc13 interacts with syntaxin, synaptobrevin, and synaptotagmin suggesting a role for these as scaffolding proteins. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. This cd contains the second C2 repeat, C2B, and has a type-II topology.