C2 domain present in Arf GTPase Activating Proteins (GAP)
ArfGAP is a GTPase activating protein which regulates the ADP ribosylation factor Arf, a member of the Ras superfamily of GTP-binding proteins. The GTP-bound form of Arf is involved in Golgi morphology and is involved in recruiting coat proteins. ArfGAP is responsible for the GDP-bound form of Arf which is necessary for uncoating the membrane and allowing the Golgi to fuse with an acceptor compartment. These proteins contain an N-terminal ArfGAP domain containing the characteristic zinc finger motif (Cys-x2-Cys-x(16,17)-x2-Cys) and C-terminal C2 domain. C2 domains were first identified in Protein Kinase C (PKC). C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions.