A single C2 domain is found in PKC epsilon. The PKC family of serine/threonine kinases regulates apoptosis, proliferation, migration, motility, chemo-resistance, and differentiation. There are 3 groups: group 1 (alpha, betaI, beta II, gamma) which require phospholipids and calcium, group 2 (delta, epsilon, theta, eta) which do not require calcium for activation, and group 3 (xi, iota/lambda) which are atypical and can be activated in the absence of diacylglycerol and calcium. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions. Members here have a type-II topology.