C2 domain present in Ras GTPase activating protein (GAP) family
SynGAP, GAP1, RasGAP, and neurofibromin are all members of the Ras-specific GAP (GTPase-activating protein) family. SynGAP regulates the MAP kinase signaling pathway and is critical for cognition and synapse function. Mutations in this gene causes mental retardation in humans. SynGAP contains a PH-like domain, a C2 domain, and a Ras-GAP domain. C2 domains fold into an 8-standed beta-sandwich that can adopt 2 structural arrangements: Type I and Type II, distinguished by a circular permutation involving their N- and C-terminal beta strands. Many C2 domains are Ca2+-dependent membrane-targeting modules that bind a wide variety of substances including bind phospholipids, inositol polyphosphates, and intracellular proteins. Most C2 domain proteins are either signal transduction enzymes that contain a single C2 domain, such as protein kinase C, or membrane trafficking proteins which contain at least two C2 domains, such as synaptotagmin 1. However, there are a few exceptions to this including RIM isoforms and some splice variants of piccolo/aczonin and intersectin which only have a single C2 domain. C2 domains with a calcium binding region have negatively charged residues, primarily aspartates, that serve as ligands for calcium ions.