Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in Human DJ-1
Type 1 glutamine amidotransferase (GATase1)-like domain found in Human DJ-1. DJ-1 is involved in multiple physiological processes including cancer, Parkinson's disease and male fertility. It is unclear how DJ-1 functions in these. DJ-1 has been shown to possess chaperone activity. DJ-1 is preferentially expressed in the testis and moderately in other tissues; it is induced together with genes involved in oxidative stress response. The Drosophila homologue (DJ-1A) plays an essential role in oxidative stress response and neuronal maintenance. Inhibition of DJ-1A function through RNAi, results in the cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species, organismal hypersensitivity to oxidative stress, and dysfunction and degeneration of dopaminergic and photoreceptor neurons. DJ-1 has lacks enzymatic activity and the catalytic triad of typical GATase1 domains, however it does contain the highly conserved cysteine located at the nucelophile elbow region typical of these domains. This cysteine been proposed to be a site of regulation of DJ-1 activity by oxidation. DJ-1 is a dimeric enzyme.