Trans-Isoprenyl Diphosphate SynthasesTrans-Isoprenyl Diphosphate Synthases (Trans_IPPS) of class 1 isoprenoid biosynthesis enzymes which either synthesis geranyl/farnesyl diphosphates (GPP/FPP) or longer chained products from isoprene precursors, isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) and dimethylallyl diphosphate (DMAPP), or use geranyl (C10)-, farnesyl (C15)-, or geranylgeranyl (C20)-diphosphate as substrate. These enzymes produce a myriad of precursors for such end products as steroids, cholesterol, sesquiterpenes, heme, carotenoids, retinoids, diterpenes, ubiquinone, and archaeal ether linked lipids; and are widely distributed among archaea, bacteria, and eukareya. The enzymes in this family share the same 'isoprenoid synthase fold' and include the head-to-tail (HT) IPPS which catalyze the successive 1'-4 condensation of the 5-carbon IPP to the growing isoprene chain to form linear, all-trans, C10-, C15-, C20- C25-, C30-, C35-, C40-, C45-, or C50-isoprenoid diphosphates. The head-to-head (HH) IPPS catalyze the successive 1'-1 condensation of 2 farnesyl or 2 geranylgeranyl isoprenoid diphosphates. Isoprenoid chain elongation reactions proceed via electrophilic alkylations in which a new carbon-carbon single bond is generated through interaction between a highly reactive electron-deficient allylic carbocation and an electron-rich carbon-carbon double bond. The catalytic site consists of a large central cavity formed by mostly antiparallel alpha helices with two aspartate-rich regions located on opposite walls. These residues mediate binding of prenyl phosphates via bridging Mg2+ ions, inducing proposed conformational changes that close the active site to solvent, stabilizing reactive carbocation intermediates. Mechanistically and structurally distinct, cis-IPPS are not included in this CD.