These trans-Isoprenyl Diphosphate Synthases (Trans_IPPS) catalyze a head-to-head (HH) (1'-1) condensation reaction. This CD includes squalene and phytoene synthases which catalyze the 1'-1 condensation of two 15-carbon (farnesyl) and 20-carbon (geranylgeranyl) isoprenyl diphosphates, respectively. The catalytic site consists of a large central cavity formed by mostly antiparallel alpha helices with two aspartate-rich regions (DXXXD) located on opposite walls. These residues mediate binding of prenyl phosphates. A two-step reaction has been proposed for squalene synthase (farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase) in which, two molecules of FPP react to form a stable cyclopropylcarbinyl diphosphate intermediate, and then the intermediate undergoes heterolysis, isomerization, and reduction with NADPH to form squalene, a precursor of cholestrol. The carotenoid biosynthesis enzyme, phytoene synthase (CrtB), catalyzes the condensation reaction of two molecules of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to produce phytoene, a precursor of beta-carotene. These enzymes produce the triterpene and tetraterpene precursors for many diverse sterol and carotenoid end products and are widely distributed among eukareya, bacteria, and archaea.