Growth hormone receptor binding protein is produced either by proteolysis of the GHR (growth hormone receptor) at the cell surface thereby releasing its extracellular domain, the GHBP (growth hormone-binding protein), or, in rodents, by alternative processing of the GHR transcript. The sheddase proteolytic enzyme responsible for the cleavage is TACE (tumor necrosis factor-alpha-converting enzyme). Growth hormone (GH) binding to GH receptor (GHR) is the initial step that leads to the physiological functions of the hormone. The biological effects of GHBP are determined by the serum levels of growth hormone (GH), which can vary. Low levels of GH can result in a dwarf phenotype and have been positively correlated with an increased life expectancy. High levels of GH can lead to gigantism or a clinical syndrome termed acromegaly and have been implicated in diabetic eye and kidney damage.