Dysbindin is an evolutionary conserved 40-kDa coiled-coil-containing protein that binds to alpha- and beta-dystrobrevin in muscle and brain. Dystrophin and alpha-dystrobrevin are co-immunoprecipitated with dysbindin, indicating that dysbindin is DPC-associated in muscle. Dysbindin co-localizes with alpha-dystrobrevin at the sarcolemma and is up-regulated in dystrophin-deficient muscle. In the brain, dysbindin is found primarily in axon bundles and especially in certain axon terminals, notably mossy fibre synaptic terminals in the cerebellum and hippocampus. Dysbindin may have implications for the molecular pathology of Duchenne muscular dystrophy and may provide an alternative route for anchoring dystrobrevin and the DPC to the muscle membrane. Genetic variation in the human dysbindin gene is also thought to be associated with Schizophrenia.