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X-rays of the colon and rectum that are taken after a person is given a barium enema.

Results: 1 to 20 of 206

Fact sheet: Understanding bone examinations

Whether we do exercise, climb stairs or carry water crates – our bones have to prove their stability every day. When we are young, our bodies can handle physical strain more easily than later in life. Nonetheless fractures are not uncommon at a young age, for example in sports accidents. As we grow older, diseases like osteoporosis and signs of wear and tear in the bones become more common. Depending on the problem, different types of bone examinations are considered. We describe the most common ones in this fact sheet.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 8, 2011

Chest X‐rays in acute chest infections

Acute chest infections (lower respiratory tract infections) such as pneumonia, bronchitis and bronchiolitis are a major cause of deaths worldwide and expected to be amongst the leading four causes of death by 2030. The most affected population groups are children under 59 months and adults over 50 years of age. Patients with chest infections often have a fever, cough, shortness of breath and phlegm production. A chest X‐ray is commonly used to help diagnose and manage chest infections and is widely used in high‐income countries. However, the impact of chest X‐rays in terms of how they may change patient recovery in suspected chest infection has not been evaluated. We focused on whether the use of chest X‐rays compared to not using them led to improved outcomes such as a faster recovery rate, less time in hospital and fewer complications for the patient. We did not investigate the use of chest X‐rays as a tool in the diagnosis of chest infections or the differences in the interpretation of X‐rays between doctors.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

The role of brain radiotherapy (X‐rays) in the treatment of lymphoma in the brain

Background: Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a type of cancer that occurs in the brain or spinal cord. It is a rare and aggressive type of lymphoma. People who develop PCNSL survive for only four months on average, if they do not receive treatment. For a long time the only treatment showing any benefit was whole brain radiotherapy (WBR), in which X‐rays are used to destroy cancerous cells in the brain. However, several studies suggest that this treatment method also produces signs of damage to healthy brain tissue. Since the introduction of methotrexate, a powerful chemotherapy drug showing great beneficial effects, experts have debated the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of people with PCNSL. Radiotherapy could be combined with chemotherapy, or not used at all, especially considering its potentially harmful effects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Measuring bone density: Who could benefit from this test?

After menopause women are more likely to have fragile bones. Drug treatments can strengthen the bones and lower the risk of fracture. Whether women benefit from the medications can be assessed by measuring their bone density.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 21, 2012

Having a Breast Biopsy: A Guide for Women and Their Families

This guide can help you talk with your doctor or nurse about breast biopsies. If you have a breast lump or a suspicious area on your mammogram, a breast biopsy tells if it is cancer. This guide talks about the different kinds of biopsies. It will tell you what to expect if you have a breast biopsy.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: April 14, 2010

Fact sheet: Gallstones

Gallbladder surgery is one of the most common operations in Germany. About 190,000 women and men have gallbladder surgery every year, mostly because they have gallstones that are causing symptoms or complications. Gallstones are often harmless, however, and a lot of people have gallstones without noticing them. If they do get symptoms, many people ask themselves what they should do: Wait and treat their symptoms? Or have surgery? In this fact sheet we give you an overview of the causes and consequences of gallstones, as well as the treatment options.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 8, 2012

Diagnostics: Why doing more is not always better

Tests are often done to find the cause of certain symptoms. There are several reasons why it can be important to have as accurate a diagnosis as possible: It helps doctors find out whether symptoms are a sign of a (serious) disease and how the disease might progress. Knowing what is causing the symptoms can also make it easier to find an appropriate treatment. On the other hand, not all symptoms can be linked to certain causes. And sometimes the tests themselves can become a problem and do more harm than good. This text is about what kinds of tests there are, and why it is not always a good idea to do all the examinations that are possible.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 17, 2012

Fact sheet: External radiotherapy

People who have cancer (malignant tumor) generally have three treatment options: surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Radiotherapy, also called radiation therapy, aims to destroy the cancer tissue by exposing it to certain high-energy rays. The source of radiation can be located outside the body (external radiotherapy) as well as inside the body and very close to the tumor (internal radiotherapy or brachytherapy). This fact sheet focuses on external radiotherapy. You can read about internal radiation therapy in our fact sheet on brachytherapy.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 7, 2012

Fact sheet: Slipped disk and low back pain

Many people have low back pain that keeps on coming back. Often, an exact cause cannot be determined and the pain goes away on its own after a few days or a couple of weeks. But if you have low back pain that extends further down through your leg and into your foot, it may be a sign of a slipped disk, or “herniated disk”. This kind of pain, which extends into the extremities, is called sciatica. A slipped disk does not always cause symptoms, however.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 25, 2013

What happens during a PET scan?

Positron emission tomography (PET) is an examination that creates several cross-sectional images of the body or of a particular region of the body. These images show the region they display layer by layer, like looking at it in thin slices. PET uses a radioactive substance that is not considered harmful for humans at the dosage given in this examination. The average radiation exposure is about the same as the exposure from a computed tomography of the chest.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 8, 2011

Overview: Breast cancer

In breast cancer, new, malignant tissue starts growing in a mammary gland. Being diagnosed with breast cancer often makes people feel very frightened and anxious. Getting cancer can really turn your life upside down for a while. It is helpful to know that if you get breast cancer for the first time and it has not spread, there’s a good chance that treatment will lead to a full recovery nowadays. There are also many support services that help people in everyday life, to return to work and cope emotionally with breast cancer.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 21, 2013

Fact sheet: What you should know about screening tests

A wide range of screening tests are available. Some tests are considered to have a benefit, whereas the benefit of other tests is not so clear. Screening tests cannot guarantee that you are healthy. And they are not risk-free either. So it is worth weighing the pros and cons of a screening test before deciding whether or not to have it. This fact sheet aims to help you do so. We describe which criteria a screening test must fulfill for it to be worth having, explain important terms, and shed light on the scientific background.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: October 11, 2012

Recurrent non-metastatic breast cancer (local or locoregional recurrence)

This fact sheet provides women who have a local or locoregional recurrence of breast cancer with an overview of the different examinations and treatments, and points out some strategies for living with this disease.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 8, 2013

Screening for lung cancer

Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer‐related death in the western world. It takes about 20 years to develop and cigarette smoking is a known cause. Most lung cancers are not found early in the development of the disease. Regular screening is offered to those considered to be at high risk of contracting the disease. Trials were made of early detection methods such as the testing of sputum, x‐ray and computed tomography (CT) scanning of the chest to see whether they made a difference to the number of people who were treated by surgery and the number of people who died as a result of the disease. This review examined the evidence from nine trials (with a total of 453,965 participants) and found that early screening with chest X‐ray or sputum testing does not reduce the number of people who die from lung cancer. Screening with low‐dose chest CT was found in one large trial to reduce the number of people who die from lung cancer but this trial only included very high‐risk smokers and ex‐smokers. CT screening however is associated with a high number of false positive results and there are also some people who have lung cancer detected and treated but in whom this cancer may not have progressed to cause death in their lifetime, even in the absence of treatment (referred to as overdiagnosis). More research is needed about the relative harms and benefits of CT screening in individuals at lower risk for lung cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Pelvimetry for fetal cephalic presentations at or near term

Too little evidence to show whether measuring the size of the woman's pelvis (pelvimetry) is beneficial when the baby is in a cephalic position.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Rapid viral testing for children in the Emergency Department with fever and respiratory symptoms

Otherwise healthy children, aged 0 to 18 years, admitted to Emergency Departments (EDs) with fever and respiratory symptoms represent a major burden to the healthcare system, as well as significant anxiety and expense to parents and caregivers. Physicians often order diagnostic tests and may prescribe antibiotics when they are unsure of the cause of the illness and are concerned about the possibility of serious bacterial infection. However, in most cases, fever and respiratory symptoms are caused by viruses. In addition, in children in whom a virus is found to be the cause of their illness, the risk of serious bacterial infection is very low. We conducted this review to assess whether a rapid viral test, done in the ED, changes what physicians do when treating these children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Regular or selected use of computed tomography (CT) scanning to reduce deaths in people who have a high‐energy blunt‐traumatic injury

Trauma is the fifth leading cause of death in the world, and in people younger than 40 years of age, it is the leading cause of death. Since the 2000s, computed tomography (CT) has been increasingly used in the trauma bay. It is more sensitive and specific than conventional radiography and ultrasonography. By the 2010s, with technical and infrastructural improvements, CT has evolved into a reliable and important method of diagnostic imaging in trauma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Assessment of techniques to ascertain correct placement of a breathing tube in neonates

When a newborn baby requires a tube to be inserted into the windpipe to help him/her breathe, the clinical team can take a radiograph (X‐ray) to confirm that the tube is correctly positioned. Because this is often delayed, however, newer techniques aimed at rapidly confirming the correct placement of the breathing tube within the windpipe have been developed. The rapid confirmation of correct tube placement is important because a wrongly placed tube can result in serious adverse outcomes, including death, low levels of oxygen in the blood, an abnormal collection of air or gas between the lung and the chest wall, which can interfere with breathing, or the collapse of the lung. New techniques for the rapid determination of tube placement include the use of clinical signs, the measurement of air going in and out of the lung (using a respiratory function monitor), measuring the amount of exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) and using ultrasound to image the tube within the windpipe.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Glucocorticoids for rheumatoid arthritis

‐ reduce the progression of the disease on x‐rays over 1 to 2 years.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Lung Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about tests used to detect or screen for lung cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: November 2, 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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