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Longchain polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation in infants born at term

It has been suggested that low levels of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) found in formula milk may contribute to lower IQ levels and vision skills in term infants. Some milk formulas with added LCPUFA are commercially available. This review found that feeding term infants with milk formula enriched with LCPUFA had no proven benefit regarding vision, cognition or physical growth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Accommodative intraocular lenses compared with monofocal intraocular lenses in cataract surgery

Accommodation is the ability of the eye to focus on both distant and near objects.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Glasses to prevent eye misalignment in far‐sighted children

We compared the benefits and harms of wearing glasses to other interventions in far‐sighted children to prevent the development of eye misalignment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Antibiotics compared with no treatment or placebo for the treatment of toxoplasma retinochoroiditis

Toxoplasma retinochoroiditis occurs when a parasite called toxoplasma gondii gets into the retina (the light sensitive layer inside the eye) and the choroid (layer of the eyeball near the retina). This causes inflammation that can scar the retina and reduce vision. Symptoms include a sudden feeling of discomfort in the eye and loss of vision which usually resolve spontaneously within six to eight weeks. The infection can keep returning, increasing the chances of damage. Antibiotics are sometimes used to try and reduce the inflammation and scarring, or to prevent the infection from re‐emerging, but it is not known how well they work. The review found three studies with a total of 173 participants of any age which compared antibiotics with no treatment or a placebo. Two studies examined the effect of antibiotics on reducing the recurrence of episodes of the disease. One study found that in Brazilian adults infected with the more aggressive South American strains of the parasite who have frequently recurring eye symptoms, long‐term antibiotics over 14 months reduced the number of recurrent episodes of retinochoroiditis. The second study did not find that short‐term treatment with antibiotics made any difference. Side effects of giving antibiotics such as decreased white blood cells, loss of appetite, rashes and other allergic reactions, were investigated in two studies involving the antibiotic pyrimethamine: only weak evidence was found that antibiotics increase the risk of side effects. In all studies, there were problems with the design, conduct and analyses, which could have biased the results. There was a lack of evidence about whether antibiotics (short‐ or long‐term) prevent vision loss. More trials are needed, including trials of newer antibiotics.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

There is no evidence that MPACs (PBT1 or PBT2) are of benefit in Alzheimer's dementia

The protein amyloid‐β (Aß) is strongly implicated in the development of Alzheimer's dementia, where it aggregates in clumps causing damage and death of brain cells. This clumping is encouraged by copper and zinc (metal ions) in the brain. Metal protein attenuating compounds (MPACS) bind strongly to copper and zinc (this is known as chelation), both preventing the clumping together of Aß and promoting processes which may cause it to dissolve and so be cleared from brain cells. Therefore MPACS may be a potential therapy for Alzheimer's dementia. Two different types of MPAC have been used in clinical trials and the drugs are known as PBT1 and PBT2. The trial of PBT1 compared with placebo (in 36 patients) showed no statistically significant difference in cognition or memory between the active treatment and placebo groups at 36 weeks. We therefore conclude that there is no current evidence that treatment with clioquinol (PBT1) has any significant effect on cognition and in particular memory (as measured by the ADAS‐Cog scale) in patients with Alzheimer's dementia. This drug has now been withdrawn from development. The trial of PBT2 showed it was safe after 12 weeks of treatment but demonstrated no overall significant effect on cognition or memory.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Vision screening of older drivers to prevent road traffic injuries and deaths

Good vision is critical for safe driving performance. Because vision declines with age, and the percentage of older adults in the population is increasing, it has become more important to consider the vision screening requirements for older adults when designing evidence‐based traffic safety policy. Mandatory vision screening for the issue or renewal of a driver's licence helps to ensure that older drivers are fit to safely operate vehicles.To date, there has been no trial to demonstrate the impact of vision screening on the prevention of older driver‐related crashes. However, given the importance of good vision for safe driving, vision testing remains a relevant issue for all licensed drivers.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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