Home > Search Results
  • We are sorry, but NCBI web applications do not support your browser and may not function properly. More information

Results: 1 to 20 of 321

Elective (regular) versus symptomatic intravenous antibiotic therapy for cystic fibrosis

Chronic infection of the airways by Pseudomonas aeruginosa in people with cystic fibrosis is associated with deterioration in respiratory function. Intravenous antibiotics are the standard therapy for pulmonary exacerbations caused by this micro‐organism. Many centres advocate the use of elective (regular) three‐monthly antibiotics to reduce the frequency of exacerbations and therefore slow the deterioration of lung function. Alternatively, intravenous antibiotics are only prescribed when symptoms indicate. Elective therapy may encourage multi‐resistance to antibiotics. This review aimed to identify randomised and quasi‐randomised controlled trials that evaluated the results of the two different approaches. No clear conclusions were identified.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatments for symptomatic urinary tract infections during pregnancy

Antibiotics are very effective at clearing urinary tract infections in pregnancy, and complications are very rare.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Conservative management of symptomatic and/or complicated haemorrhoids in pregnancy and the puerperium

Not enough evidence on non‐surgical interventions for treating problematic piles (haemorrhoids) during pregnancy and in the early weeks after birth (puerperium).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Trypanocidal drugs for late stage, symptomatic Chagas disease

Infection with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes American trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease. There is evidence that trypanocidal drug treatment, using nitrofuran and imidazolic compounds, can treat acute trypanosomiasis cruzi infections. However, it is not clear if these interventions are effective for chronic infection specifically overt, chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy. We systematically reviewed the literature for randomized, double blind, controlled clinical trials with or without placebo published since 1965 when these treatments first became available. We found a single double blind randomized clinical trial and five case‐control or case series which addressed trypanocidal treatment of chronic Typanosoma cruzi infection (chronic Chagas disease) in human beings. After reviewing this limited evidence we concluded that treatment with these drugs is not sufficiently well supported regarding clinical value and capacity to eliminate tissue parasitism or induce disappearance of circulating antibodies. Currently new drugs are being developed and clinical trials are needed to evaluate their use in chronic Typanosoma cruzi infection and related diseases.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Continuous infusion versus intermittent bolus doses of indomethacin for patent ductus arteriosus closure in symptomatic preterm infants

Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) occurs when an artery near the heart and lungs stays open and does not close off after birth. Babies born early (preterm) have an increased risk of complications and death due to PDA. Indomethacin has been used to close the PDA; however, it can reduce blood flow in organs such as brain, kidneys and intestine. There is no agreement on the ideal dose and duration of treatment with indomethacin. In order to reduce the adverse effects of indomethacin on blood flow, some investigators have recommended administering the same total dose as a continuous infusion over 36 hours. In this review, the analysis of the two eligible trials found that the data was insufficient to reach a conclusion regarding the effectiveness of the 36‐hr continuous infusion method. The blood flow lowering side‐effects of indomethacin were reduced by the continuous infusion method, but there was insufficient data to recommend this administration method versus the traditional method.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

There is insufficient evidence to support the use of acupuncture for the symptomatic treatment of restless legs syndrome.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor movement disorder characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the legs and an urge to move them. The syndrome is very common and its lifestyle impacts justify a search for more effective and acceptable interventions.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Vitamin K antagonists or low‐molecular‐weight heparin for the long term treatment of symptomatic blood clots

Blood clots (venous thromboembolism) sometimes cause blockages in veins after surgery, bed rest, or spontaneously. These clots can be fatal when they travel to the lungs. Vitamin K antagonists are effective in preventing renewed blood clot formation, by thinning the blood. Low‐molecular‐weight heparins (LMWHs) are drugs that also thin the blood but they are expensive and are used for pregnant women or people who are at greater risk of major bleeding and cannot take vitamin K antagonists. This systematic review of 15 trials with a combined total of 3197 patients found no statistically significant differences in the safety and effectiveness of LMWH compared with vitamin K antagonists. More research about the best way to treat blood clots in the veins in long term treatment is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antibiotic duration for treating uncomplicated symptomatic lower urinary tract infection in elderly women

As people age (especially women), they become more prone to infections in the bladder (UTI ‐ urinary tract infections). Older people are more likely to have adverse reactions to drugs. Up to the present time older women with uncomplicated UTI were treated longer than younger patients ‐ without any scientific evidence and with an increased risk of adverse drug reactions. We defined three groups of treatment durations: single‐dose, short (3 to 6 days) and longer courses (7 to 14 days).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Carotid endarterectomy for symptomatic carotid stenosis

Strokes cause long‐term disability and death. The chances of dying are much higher with subsequent strokes, which often occur within one year of the first attack. Strokes are often associated with blockages and severe narrowing in the internal carotid and other large blood vessels carrying oxygenated blood from the heart to the brain. Surgical removal of the fatty deposits and blood clots from inside the carotid artery wall may reduce the risk of stroke but carries a risk of peri‐operative complications including disabling stroke and death. This review identified three randomised controlled trials, which included over 6000 patients who were mostly elderly, predominantly male, had a recent non‐disabling stroke or transient ischaemic attack and had confirmed narrowing of the appropriate carotid artery. Many of the participants had heart disease, diabetes and high blood pressure. Increased degree of narrowing, advanced age, male sex and recent transient ischaemic attack or stroke were associated with increasing benefit from surgery. Patients with lesser degrees of narrowing were harmed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Surgical versus medical treatment with cyclooxygenase inhibitors for symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus in preterm infants

The way an infant's blood is circulated changes soon after birth. Initially, premature infants have an opening (a patent ductus arteriosus, PDA) between the large blood vessel to the lungs and the large blood vessel that carries oxygenated blood to the rest of the body. Early symptomatic treatment of PDA, when clinical signs first appear, helps reduce the amount of time an infant needs assisted breathing (mechanical ventilation) and the likelihood of chronic lung disease and damaging inflammation of the gut (necrotising enterocolitis). Standard therapy includes restricting fluids, diuretics and cyclooxygenase inhibitors like indomethacin or ibuprofen. The PDA is closed surgically if these medical treatments do not work. Only one randomised controlled study could be included in this review (including 154 preterm infants that needed breathing support). Indomethacin and surgery gave similar benefits. There were no differences in deaths during the hospital stay, chronic lung disease, necrotising enterocolitis, cerebral or other bleeding. Surgery was more effective in closing the PDA (three needed to treat for one to benefit) but it was associated with complications (pneumothorax and retinopathy of prematurity). The one study found was carried out over 30 years ago. Clinical practice has changed a great deal and surgical closure of a PDA is safer. Therefore, whether the results of the study are applicable today is debatable. Updates of this review in July 2007 and February 2012 did not identify any additional randomised controlled studies for inclusion, but three observational studies indicated an increased risk for one or more of the following outcomes associated with PDA ligation: chronic lung disease, retinopathy of prematurity and neurosensory impairment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Uterine artery embolization for symptomatic uterine fibroids

Uterine fibroids (benign tumours) can cause varied symptoms such as heavy bleeding, pain and reduced likelihood of pregnancy. Surgery (hysterectomy or myomectomy) has traditionally been the main treatment option but it carries a risk of complications. Uterine artery embolization (UAE) is a newer treatment option which blocks the blood supply to the womb and thus shrinks the fibroids and reduces their effects. This review of trials found that women who had UAE and women who had surgery were equally likely to be satisfied with their treatment and had similar improvement in their quality of life. However, the UAE group had a significantly shorter hospital stay and a more rapid return to daily activities. With regards to safety, while there were no differences in major complication rates, the percentage of women with minor complications was higher after UAE. Moreover within five years of UAE there was a five times increased risk of needing a surgical intervention. Therefore, it appears that while UAE is a safe option with an earlier initial recovery, it does carry a higher risk of minor complications and need for further surgery later. There is very low level evidence to suggest that fertility outcomes (live birth and pregnancy) may be better after myomectomy than after UAE, but more research is needed in this area.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Limited evidence of effectiveness of physostigmine for the symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer's disease

Physostigmine is an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor; it works by obstructing the enzyme responsible for ACh destruction in the synaptic cleft. Studies conducted more than 20 years ago suggested that physostigmine could improve memory in people with or without dementia. Investigation of this property has been limited by the very short half‐life of physostigmine. Various forms of administering the drug have been tried to overcome this problem, most recently a controlled‐release (CR) oral formulation, and a skin patch. An additional limiting factor has been a high incidence of adverse effects, including nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. Physostigmine appears to have no advantage over some newer anticholinesterase drugs. The short half‐life remains a serious disadvantage and requires complex forms of administration. There is no reason to recommend further research into this drug.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Pharmacological agents as symptomatic treatment for memory disorder in people with multiple sclerosis

This is an update of the Cochrane review "Pharmacologic treatment for memory disorder in multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 10).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Preventing thrombosis after hip and knee replacement: What are the advantages or disadvantages of apixaban (Eliquis)?

Apixaban (trade name Eliquis) was approved in May 2011 for preventing thrombosis after hip and knee replacement surgery.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 16, 2012

Aggressive thyroid cancer: What are the advantages or disadvantages of vandetanib (Caprelsa)?

Vandetanib (trade name Caprelsa) was approved in Germany in February 2012 for treating adults who have advanced medullary thyroid cancer. This drug is an option for people who have an aggressive and symptomatic course of disease.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 10, 2013

Medication for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis

In rheumatoid arthritis some joints in the body are permanently inflamed. The joints might hurt, become swollen and deformed, and gradually stiffen. Rheumatoid arthritis usually progresses slowly over many years. The aim of treatment with medication is to relieve the symptoms and prevent the progression of the disease as much as possible.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 22, 2013

Laxatives for the treatment of hemorrhoids

Symptomatic hemorrhoids are a common medical condition but what causes them is not completely understood. Minimizing constipation with its associated prolonged straining may affect both lifestyle measures and medicines used as treatments for symptomatic hemorrhoids.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Thrombolytic agents for arterial and venous thromboses in neonates

Major blood clots are infrequent, but serious complications that can occur in neonatal intensive care. Most often, blood clots are related to catheters (thin tubes inserted into the body), especially those inserted into the torso, for instance umbilical catheters. These are used in treating or monitoring sick newborn babies. Sometimes blood clots do not cause symptoms, but symptomatic blood clots can impair circulation and result in damage in the arms, legs, lungs, kidneys, heart, brain or intestines. The most common treatments are observation (no treatment), anti‐clotting drugs (heparin), or clot‐dissolving drugs (streptokinase, urokinase, and TPA). Surgery is also sometimes done. Administration of clot‐dissolving drugs (thrombolytics) has a risk of causing severe bleeding. It is important to understand which treatment of blood clots produces the best short‐term and long‐term results. However, a search of the medical literature found no randomized clinical trials that compared clot‐dissolving drugs with other blood clot treatments in newborns. Thus, no conclusions could be drawn.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Interventions to control symptoms in Huntington's disease

Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disease. No curative therapy is currently available. We proposed to assess the effectiveness of interventions aimed at controlling the symptoms of HD and to analyse the methodological quality of the corresponding clinical trials. 22 trials were identified. The review of these trials comprising 1254 HD patients revealed that no intervention produced a robust conclusive symptomatic effect. Nevertheless, tetrabenazine was the drug for which better data exists supporting a beneficial effect in the treatment of chorea. There were no available data for the specific treatment of other clinical relevant problems associated with HD such as depression, irritability, apathy, cognitive impairment or psychosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Antimicrobial agents for treating acute uncomplicated urinary tract infection in women

Acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infection (UTI), also know as cystitis, is characterised by burning on urination and frequent urination without fever or flank pain. It is a common event in otherwise healthy, non‐pregnant adult women. A large range of antimicrobials are used in the treatment of cystitis. Twenty one good quality studies, enrolling 6016 participants, which used different classes of antimicrobials for treating acute cystitis in women for 3 up to 10 days, were included in this review. The classes of antimicrobials included in the review proved equally effective for the symptomatic cure. Fluoroquinolones proved more effective than beta‐lactams for the short‐term bacteriological cure, but the significance of this finding is doubtful. Fewer rashes developed in patients treated with fluoroquinolones. Nitrofurantoin caused fewer rashes than TMP‐SMX while having similar rates of any adverse events. Given the small number of studies included in each comparison and for each outcome it is recommended that further randomised controlled trials be conducted.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Symptomatic
    Symptomatic can mean showing symptoms, or it may concern a specific symptom. Symptoms are signs of disease or injury. They are noticed by the patient.
See all (7)...

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (3815)...

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...