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Cancer that begins in squamous cells. Squamous cells are thin, flat cells that look like fish scales, and are found in the tissue that forms the surface of the skin, the lining of the hollow organs of the body, and the lining of the respiratory and digestive tracts.

Results: 1 to 20 of 38

Interventions for squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva in HIV‐infected individuals

Conjunctival squamous cell carcinoma, a tumour of the thin membrane that covers the white of the eye, is becoming more common, more aggressive, and affecting more young people, especially women. This pattern is associated with the HIV/AIDS pandemic, exposure to solar radiation, and infection with human papilloma virus (HPV). Various treatment modalities exist, but the recurrence rate is high and the cosmetic outcome of late disease unsightly (Figure 1). Death may occur when the disease spreads to the surrounding structures and the brain. This review was conducted to evaluate the effects of the current interventions. No randomised controlled trials of any interventions for this cancer were found. Current clinical practice appears to be based on case series and case reports. These are weak sources of evidence for the effectiveness of a treatment. Randomised controlled clinical trials are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Treatments for non‐metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the skin

Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the skin is the second most common skin cancer in people of white origin, most frequently occurring on sun‐exposed areas of the body. People with fair skin and those with certain genetic conditions or an impaired immune system are at greater risk of developing SCC of the skin. Clinically, SCC often appears as a persistent red, scaly patch which may bleed if traumatised although lesions may also look like warts or non‐healing sores. Occasionally SCC of the skin returns, even after apparently successful treatment and may spread to other parts of the body. However, it rarely causes death. Most skin SCCs are treated surgically, either by cutting out the cancer with a margin of normal‐looking skin, or occasionally by Mohs micrographic surgery in which visible tumour is removed and examined under the microscope, with further stages of excision and microscopic examination until all the tumour has gone. If surgery is not possible, radiotherapy may be used as a treatment. Other treatments sometimes used include curettage and cautery (where tumour is scraped off and the wound sealed with a small electrical current to stop bleeding and destroy remaining cancer cells), and cryotherapy, in which cancer cells are destroyed by freezing. Sometimes combinations of treatment are used for more aggressive skin SCC that has a high risk of recurring and spreading. Other more novel treatments have also been used but are not generally recommended.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 3, 2014

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of metastatic cancer that has spread from an unidentified primary tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 3, 2015

Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 2, 2015

Cervical cancer: Overview

Cervical cancer is nearly always a rare consequence of an infection with particular sexually transmitted human papillomaviruses (HPV). Infections are probably just as common in men as they are in women. But men are even less likely than women to develop health problems as a result of the infection, such as cancer. In this topic you can find information about which risk factors play a role, how cervical cancer develops, and how precancerous conditions are diagnosed and treated.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 16, 2013

Skin Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of skin cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 2, 2015

Surgery or radiotherapy for early cervical cancer of the adenocarcinoma type

Early‐stage cervical cancer of the common type, squamous cell carcinoma, has the same prognosis after primary surgery or radiotherapy. For cervical cancer of the glandular cell type (adenocarcinoma) we recommend surgery. Second best alternative for patients unfit for surgery is chemoradiation. For patients with suspected positive lymph nodes, chemoradiation is probably the first choice.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Treatments for cutaneous Bowen's disease

Bowen's disease is the clinical term for a particular precancerous skin lesion. These lesions rarely cause patients any symptoms, but appear as well‐defined scaly patches on sun‐exposed skin, commonly in those over 60 years. They occur more in women and most frequently involve the lower legs of those affected in the UK. It is not known why, but the body sites most commonly affected vary across different countries. In general, people with Bowen's disease have an excellent prognosis because the disease is typically slow to develop and responds favourably to treatment. Lesions are usually slow‐growing, and although they are not life‐threatening, there is a small risk of progression to a skin cancer (estimated to be 3%) known as invasive squamous cell carcinoma.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Medical treatments for throat cancer (oropharyngeal cancer) that is associated with human papillomavirus (HPV) infection

Recent studies suggest a connection between a virus (human papillomavirus) and throat cancer (oropharyngeal cancer) in some patients. This review has been conducted to assess potential new treatments that have emerged as a result of this information.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Esophageal Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing esophageal cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 7, 2013

Skin Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing skin cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 31, 2013

Hyperfractionated or accelerated radiotherapy for head and neck cancer

Radiotherapy is often used to treat head and neck cancers. The dosage of radiation is measured in Gray (Gy). When radiotherapy is given alone, the most commonly used schedule is 2 Gy in a single fraction per day, five days a week, for seven weeks. However, alternative radiotherapy regimens to reduce the total treatment time for head and neck cancers have been assessed. 'Acceleration' of the treatment (delivering the same total dose in a shorter time) should reduce the regrowth of the tumour between sessions, resulting in improved local control of the disease. In 'hyperfractionated' regimens, two to three fractions are delivered each day, with a reduced dose per fraction equal to 1.1 to 1.2 Gy. The reduction of the dose per fraction may reduce the risk of late toxicity, despite an increased total dose. Acceleration and hyperfractionation can be combined, in particular for regimens in which overall treatment time is reduced.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Ingenol mebutate (Picato) for actinic keratosis: Overview

Ingenol mebutate (trade name: Picato) gel has been approved in Germany since November 2012 for the treatment of certain types of actinic keratosis.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 5, 2013

Esophageal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of esophageal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 6, 2015

The effects of using drainage tubes after surgical removal of lymph glands from the groin

Lymph glands are part of the body's immune system and swell or enlarge when the body is fighting an infection. They are located in a number of places in the body, including the neck, armpits, and groin.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Less extensive surgery for vulvar cancer appears safe and limits mutilation

Vulvar cancer is rare, affecting mainly older women. Until the 1980s, affected women underwent extensive, mutilating surgery. Groin nodes on both sides as well as all vulvar tissue were removed. Recently surgeons have carried out a smaller operation, leaving as much vulvar tissue as possible behind. No randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been conducted on the safety of this reduced surgery, but from the available evidence it appears to be safe to perform this smaller operation in most patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Skin Cancer Screening (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about tests used to detect or screen for skin cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 13, 2015

Can additional chemotherapy after initial treatment for locally advanced stage cervical cancer reduce recurrence and extend life?

Standard treatment for locally advanced stage cervical cancer (stage IIB to IVA) is 'concurrent chemoradiation' when anticancer drugs are given during the same treatment period as pelvic radiotherapy (radiation therapy to lower abdomen). However, the tumour may remain (residual cancer) or may come back (recurrent cancer) after this standard treatment. This review evaluated whether giving additional anticancer drugs (ACTs) after standard treatment could help women with locally advanced cervical cancer to live longer compared with standard treatment alone.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Screening for oesophageal cancer

Oesophageal cancer is a common cause of cancer related death in the world. The prognosis in the advanced stages is unfavourable, but the early oesophageal cancers are asymptomatic and curable, and usually go undetected until they have spread beyond the oesophageal wall. Endoscopy with iodine staining or cytologic examination are two common screening tests for early oesophageal cancer. These screening tests were started in the 1970s, but the true benefit is inconsistent and is uncertain due to lead‐time bias, which is the amount of time by which the diagnosis is advanced by the screening procedure; and length‐time bias, where screening is more likely to detect slow‐growing disease rather than altering the person's duration of life. This review intended to determine the efficacy of the two screening tests for oesophageal cancer. We identified 3482 studies but none were RCTs of screening. Several non‐comparative studies showed that the screening tests may increase the incidence of reported oesophageal cancer and improve the survival results after a screening test, but these results could indicate bias rather than a true causative effect. Therefore, there is a strong need for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), especially long‐term RCTs, to determine the efficacy, cost‐effectiveness, and any adverse effects of screening for oesophageal cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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