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Results: 13

Human growth hormone and glutamine for patients with short bowel syndrome

Short bowel syndrome is a malabsorption disorder caused by the surgical removal of the small intestine, or by the complete dysfunction of a large segment of bowel. It is a challenging health problem to treat. Several small studies have assessed the benefit of providing drugs such as human growth hormone and glutamine in an attempt to improve intestinal function and wean intravenous nutrition (liquid food).  The results of this review of 5 small studies suggest that human growth hormone used with or without glutamine may provide short term benefit for patients with short bowel syndrome in terms of weight gain and intestinal absorption of nutrients. However the benefits of treatment do not continue after treatment is stopped. Common side effects of treatment include peripheral edema (swelling of tissues, usually in the lower limbs), and carpal tunnel syndrome (numbness and muscle weakness in the hand). Conclusive evidence is not available to recommend this treatment.  Further studies that evaluate human growth hormone treatment during the immediate phase of bowel adaptation are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Hypnotherapy (treatment by hypnosis) for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Studies of hypnotherapy for treatment of IBS.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Tegaserod for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome and chronic constipation

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, relapsing condition characterized by the presence of abdominal pain and disturbed bowel habit. Symptoms of chronic constipation frequently resemble those of constipation‐predominant IBS. Tegaserod (4 or 12 mg/day for 12 weeks), a drug that stimulates smooth muscle in the gastrointestinal tract, produces some benefit over placebo when used to treat IBS where constipation is a major symptom. Patients taking tegaserod reported an overall improvement in their IBS symptoms, an increase in number of bowel movements per day and a reduction in number of days without bowel movements. It is not clear if tegaserod improves symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, stool consistency and straining. When used to treat chronic constipation, the frequency of bowel movements increased with tegaserod, but increases over those seen with placebo were small. Diarrhea occurred more often among individuals taking high dose tegaserod (12 mg/day). Further studies are needed to assess the effect of tegaserod on quality of life. More information is needed on its effectiveness in men, as most of the studies involved women.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Homeopathy for treatment of irritable bowel syndrome

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common chronic disorder characterised by altered bowel habits and abdominal pain, discomfort, bloating, constipation or diarrhoea or both. It is difficult to treat because no single cause has been identified. IBS impairs health‐related quality of life and work productivity. Currently there is no agreement on the best form of treatment for IBS. Therefore it is important to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of treatments, including homeopathic treatment, which some IBS sufferers use. Clinical homeopathy matches a 'remedy' to a specific condition (such as arnica for bruising), whereas individualised homeopathy involves a series of in‐depth consultations to assess symptoms, the effects of remedies and other issues that may affect the patient, in order to select appropriate 'remedies'. Individualised homeopathy includes both a consultation and a remedy, whereas clinical homeopathy consists of a remedy without the in‐depth consultation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Irritable bowel syndrome: What can help?

There are a lot of treatments that aim to relieve the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome – but not all of them have been tested in high-quality studies. Because the causes of IBS are not clear, it is difficult to find suitable treatments. But research has suggested that at least some medications and treatments may be helpful.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 1, 2013

Fact sheet: Gallstones

Gallbladder surgery is one of the most common operations in Germany. About 190,000 women and men have gallbladder surgery every year, mostly because they have gallstones that are causing symptoms or complications. Gallstones are often harmless, however, and a lot of people have gallstones without noticing them. If they do get symptoms, many people ask themselves what they should do: Wait and treat their symptoms? Or have surgery? In this fact sheet we give you an overview of the causes and consequences of gallstones, as well as the treatment options.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 8, 2012

Limited symptom relief is available for women with chronic pelvic pain

Chronic pelvic pain in women is a common problem. Symptoms include lower abdominal pain, and pain before and during sexual intercourse. Specific causes are difficult to identify and treatment is often limited to relief of symptoms. An ultrasound or internal examination using a laparoscope is done to rule out serious conditions and to provide reassurance. The review of trials found that a multidisciplinary approach helps alleviate symptoms. A high dose of progestogen therapy using medroxyprogesterone acetate also helps but goserelin has a longer duration of benefit. There is an indication of benefit from writing therapy for some patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Natalizumab for treatment of active Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a chronic inflammatory disease of the intestines. Crohn's disease frequently occurs in the lower part of the small intestine, called the ileum, but it can affect any part of the digestive tract, from the mouth to the anus. The most common symptoms of Crohn's disease are abdominal pain, often in the lower right area, and diarrhea. Natalizumab blocks the adhesion and migration of white blood cells into the gut reducing chronic inflammation associated with Crohn's disease. Four high quality studies were reviewed. The studies tested 1692 people over the age of eighteen who had moderate to severe Crohn's disease. The subjects received 1 to 3 infusions of natalizumab (at a dosage of 300 mg or weight based dosages of 3, 4 or 6 mg/kg) or placebo (fake infusions). The studies lasted for 12 weeks. The results of the studies indicate that natalizumab is effective therapy for some people with active Crohn's disease. People with active disease responded positively to even one treatment of the drug and the studies examined showed increased benefits with additional injections of natalizumab. More people improved through treatment using natalizumab than those using the fake treatments. The drug was generally well tolerated and side effects occurred infrequently. Serious side effects occurred rarely (range 7 to 11% for natalizumab and placebo patients). Few patients withdrew from the studies due to side effects (2 to 8% for natalizumab compared to 3 to 7% for placebo). Side effects that occurred during the trials included: headache, worsening of Crohn's disease, abdominal pain, arthralgia, colitis, influenza syndrome, infection, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, hypersensitivity‐like reactions, and the development of antibodies against natalizumab. Recently, it was found that two patients who received natalizumab in combination with interferon beta‐1 for multiple sclerosis and one patient who received natalizumab in combination with azathioprine for Crohn's disease developed a severe disease called progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) resulting in two deaths. PML is a serious infection of the nervous system. However an investigation of more than 3500 patients who took natalizumab found no new cases of PML. It was discovered that PML is not always fatal and regular testing of patients could provide adequate safety and ensure the well‐being of those taking natalizumab. However, the benefits of natalizumab for people with Crohn's disease should be carefully weighed against the potential risk of serious adverse events such as the possibility of infection of the nervous system.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Sleep Disorders (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about causes and management of sleep disorders in people with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 16, 2014

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 22, 2014

Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the causes and management of nutritional problems that occur in patients with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 24, 2014

Smart Health Choices: Making Sense of Health Advice

This book aims to help consumers and practitioners develop the skills to assess health advice – and hopefully to make decisions that will improve the quality of their care. For some people, making better-informed decisions could be life saving. We hope that it will be useful if you are struggling to come to terms with an illness or injury, and the best ways of managing it. Or you may simply want to lead a healthier life, and may be wondering how to make sense of the often conflicting flood of health information that deluges us every day, through the media, and from our friends and health practitioners.

Hammersmith Press.

Version: 2008
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Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Short bowel syndrome
    Short bowel syndrome is a condition that occurs when part of the small intestine is missing or has been removed during surgery. Nutrients are not properly absorbed into the body (malabsorption) as a result.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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