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Results: 4

Vitamin D compounds for people with chronic kidney disease requiring dialysis

People with reduced kidney function (chronic kidney disease; CKD) develop changes in circulating blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. The kidney gradually loses the ability to remove phosphorus from the blood and cannot activate adequate amounts of vitamin D, to maintain normal levels of calcium. The parathyroid gland senses these changes and compensates to increase calcium by elevating production and release of parathyroid hormone. These metabolic changes alter bone metabolism to release calcium and accordingly lead to bone abnormalities including altered bone production. Consequently bone deformation, bone pain, and altered risks of fracture may occur.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Vitamin D compounds for people with chronic kidney disease not requiring dialysis

People with lower kidney function (chronic kidney disease; CKD) develop changes in circulating blood levels of calcium and phosphorus. The kidney gradually loses the ability to remove phosphorus from the blood and cannot activate adequate amounts of vitamin D to maintain normal levels of calcium. The parathyroid gland senses these changes and compensates to increase calcium by elevating production and release of parathyroid hormone (PTH). These metabolic changes alter bone metabolism to release calcium and accordingly lead to bone abnormalities including altered bone production. In turn, bony changes may result in bone deformation, bone pain, and altered risks of fracture.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Interventions for bone disease in children with chronic kidney disease

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) resulting in reduced kidney function and the need for dialysis and kidney transplant is associated with abnormalities in blood calcium and phosphorus levels leading to high levels of the parathyroid hormone (PTH) and to bone disease. This may result in bone deformities, bone pain, fractures and reduced growth rates. Commonly used treatments (Vitamin D compounds and phosphate binders) aim to prevent or correct these outcomes. However these treatments may raise levels of blood calcium, allow calcium and phosphorus deposition in blood vessels and lead to early cardiovascular disease, which is known to be a problem in adults with CKD. This review identified only 15 small RCTs involving 369 children comparing different vitamin D compounds, different routes and frequencies of administration of vitamin D compounds and different phosphate binders. Only five RCTs reported on growth rates and no differences were detected between treatments. Renal bone disease, as assessed by changes in PTH levels, was improved by all vitamin D preparations regardless of preparation used or the route or frequency of administration. Fewer episodes of high blood calcium levels and lower overall serum calcium levels occurred with the non calcium‐containing binder, sevelamer, compared with calcium‐containing binders. As newer treatments for renal bone disease are developed, comparisons with the current standard therapies will be required in well designed RCTs in children using outcome measures including those of direct clinical relevance to children and their families such as rates of growth, reduction in bone fractures and bone pain and reduction in calcification in blood vessels.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Radioisotopes to ease metastatic bone pain

Pain is commonly experienced by people whose cancer has spread to their bones. There are several ways to treat this pain, including the administration of radioisotopes, which are chemical elements that emit radiation and act on the bone to reduce the effects of the cancer. This review looked at the effectiveness of radioisotopes for relieving pain, reducing patients' needs for conventional pain‐killers, improvements in quality of life, and increased survival. There is some evidence that radioisotopes may give pain relief over one to six months, but the treatment also seemed to be associated with adverse effects, notably reducing blood cells (leucocytes). When comparing different radioisotopes or different doses of a radioisotope, we identified no conclusive differences.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Phosphorus blood test
    The phosphorus blood test measures the amount of phosphate in the blood.
  • Phosphorus in diet
    Phosphorus is a mineral that makes up 1% of a person's total body weight. It is present in every cell of the body. Most of the phosphorus in the body is found in the bones and teeth.
  • Hypophosphatemia
    Hypophosphatemia is a low level of phosphorus in the blood.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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