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Results: 9

Bisphosphonates in multiple myeloma

Multiple myeloma (also known as myeloma or plasma cell myeloma) is a B‐cell malignancy or, more precisely, plasma cell neoplasm. This cancer grows inside or outside of bones. The bone damage, or osteolytic lesions, may lead to fractures of the long bones or compression fractures in the spine. The mechanism of bone destruction appears to be related to increased bone resorption by cells called osteoclasts. Bisphosphonates are drugs that can inhibit bone resorption by reducing the number and activity of osteoclasts. This updated review of 20 trials enrolling 6692 patients shows that adding bisphosphonates to myeloma treatment reduces fractures of the vertebra and bone pain. Zoledronate is better than etidronate and placebo alone, but not superior to pamidronate or clodronate for improving overall survival and any other outcomes such as vertebral and nonvertebral fractures.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Bone agents for breast cancer

When breast cancer (BC) has spread to the bones (bone metastases, BM), bone agents (added to anti‐cancer treatment for breast cancer) can reduce pain, fractures and other bone problems. Women and men with advanced breast cancer (ABC) commonly develop bone metastases. Cancer in bones can cause pain, fractures, hypercalcaemia (too much calcium in the blood) and tumour compression of the spinal cord, resulting in serious and permanent nerve damage. This is because cancer deposits can erode into bone using bone‐absorbing cells. Bisphosphonates, and the more recent novel targeted‐therapy denosumab, are drugs that reduce the activity of these bone‐absorbing cells. This review of trials in women with advanced BCBM found that the use of bisphosphonates or denosumab (in addition to their other cancer treatments), can reduce these serious bone problems. It is of great interest to see if bisphosphonates prevent recurrence and improve survival for patients who have been treated for early breast cancer (EBC). However, this review of trials in women with EBC has not identified a benefit of bisphosphonates as an adjuvant therapy at this stage. We have to wait for the reporting of a number of large clinical trials before firm conclusions can be made. Adverse effects are not common for bisphosphonates and include mild gut reactions, transient fever, hypocalcaemia and a small risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ), depending on which drug is used. Denosumab appears to be at least as well tolerated as the bisphosphonates.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Interventions for replacing missing teeth: hyperbaric oxygen therapy for irradiated patients who require dental implants

This review, carried out by authors of the Cochrane Oral Health Group, was produced to compare the success of dental implant treatment carried out with and without hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) in patients who had previously had radiation treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Risedronate for preventing fractures caused by osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

This summary of a Cochrane review, presents what we know from research about the effect of Risedronate for preventing fractures (broken bones) caused by osteoporosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Alendronate for preventing fractures caused by osteoporosis in postmenopausal women

This summary of a Cochrane review presents what we know from research about the effect of alendronate for preventing fractures (broken bones) caused by osteoporosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Osteoporosis Treatments That Help Prevent Broken Bones: A Guide for Women After Menopause

Osteoporosis means that bones become less dense (or less solid). Bones that are less dense are weak and break easier. If your doctor has told you that you have osteoporosis, this guide is for you. It looks at ways to prevent broken bones caused by osteoporosis. It can help you talk to your doctor or nurse about ways to lower your risk of broken bones. It covers: Different kinds of treatments for preventing broken bones from osteoporosis. How well they work. Side effects of osteoporosis medicines. Price.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 11, 2008

Pain (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about pain as a complication of cancer or its treatment. Approaches to the management and treatment of cancer-associated pain are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 10, 2014

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 22, 2014

Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 24, 2014

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Osteonecrosis
    Osteonecrosis is bone death caused by poor blood supply. It is most common in the hip and shoulder, but can affect other large joints such as the knee, elbow, wrist and ankle.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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