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Understanding tests used to detect bone problems

Just like other tissues and organs in our body, bones can be affected by medical conditions too. These include things like fractures, signs of wear and tear, inflammations and cancer. Injuries and fractures are common in younger people. As we grow older, diseases like osteoporosis and osteoarthritis are more likely to develop. Various tests and examinations can be used to find out what is causing problems like pain or difficulties moving.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 7, 2013

Metastatic Squamous Neck Cancer with Occult Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of metastatic squamous neck cancer with occult primary.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 3, 2014

Oral Complications of Chemotherapy and Head/Neck Radiation (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about oral complications, such as mucositis and salivary gland dysfunction, that occur in cancer patients treated with chemotherapy or radiation therapy to the head and neck.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 24, 2014

The role of surgical assessment of lymph nodes before treatment for women with locally advanced cervical cancer

Cervical cancer arises from the neck of the womb (cervix). Cervical screening programmes have decreased the rate of advanced cervical cancer. However, a significant number of cases still present with locally advanced disease that involves large cervical tumours (> 4 cm) or tumours that extend to the upper vagina. The larger the primary tumour, the greater the likelihood of metastasis (spread of cancer to other areas of the body). Cervical cancer spreads to the lymph nodes in the pelvis and around the aorta (one of the major blood vessels in the abdomen). Stage is a standardised assessment of the size of the cancer and if it has spread to adjacent or distant sites. Stage for stage, women with para‐aortic lymph node metastases at presentation have a lower survival than those who do not have para‐aortic metastases at presentation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: February 13, 2015

Hypopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of hypopharyngeal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 19, 2015

Laryngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of laryngeal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 19, 2015

Do vaginal packing, tranexamic acid, interventional radiology or other interventions control vaginal bleeding in women with advanced cervical cancer?

Background: Cervical cancer (cancer of the neck of the womb) is the second most common cancer among women throughout the world, accounting for about 500,000 new detected cases and 273,000 deaths every year. Women more commonly present with advanced disease in the developing world, where access to cervical screening programmes is limited. Advanced cancer of the cervix may not be curable and women often need treatment to control distressing symptoms (palliation), such as vaginal bleeding. Bleeding can be severe enough to be life threatening in women with advanced cervical cancer. Management of vaginal bleeding often poses a challenge, especially in the developing world, where access to radiotherapy is limited. Options for palliative treatment of severe vaginal bleeding include interventional radiology treatment (using x‐rays to guide the insertion of 'plugs' into blood vessels supplying the cancer) or vaginal packing (where gauze is compacted into the vagina to absorb the blood and apply pressure directly to the cervix), although these are often only partly effective and may cause harm. Vaginal packs can be soaked with formalin, which is a preservative chemical. Other options for treating severe vaginal bleeding include tranexamic acid (a medicine that reduces bleeding that can be given by mouth or by injection) and radiotherapy (high‐energy x‐ray treatment).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Lip and Oral Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of lip and oral cavity cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 19, 2015

Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of paranasal sinus and nasal cavity cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 12, 2015

Oropharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of oropharyngeal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 20, 2015

Salivary Gland Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of salivary gland cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 30, 2015

Nasopharyngeal Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 8, 2014

Parathyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of parathyroid cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 2, 2015

Unusual Cancers of Childhood Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 7, 2015

Small Cell Lung Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of small cell lung cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 12, 2015

Thyroid Cancer Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of thyroid cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 17, 2015

Plasma Cell Neoplasms (Including Multiple Myeloma) Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of plasma cell neoplasms (including multiple myeloma).

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: March 16, 2015

Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of metastatic cancer that has spread from an unidentified primary tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: April 3, 2015

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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