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The condition in which the individual does not see far distances clearly.

Results: 7

Laser photocoagulation for treating choroidal new vessels near the centre of the retina in people with high myopia

In people with high myopia (refractive error ‐6 diopters or worse) new blood vessels can grow under the retina of the eye (choroidal neovascularisation). For decades laser coagulation has been used to destroy lesions that are not central. This review found one small study, including 70 participants, which compared laser photocoagulation with no treatment for people with this disease. This study was inadequately reported and analysed, although it suggested a benefit with photocoagulation during the first two years of follow up. Another small study compared three laser wavelengths to achieve photocoagulation of the lesion, but actually had very little power to demonstrate a difference between them as only 27 participants were included. Therefore, despite its widespread use for many years, the amount of benefit achieved with photocoagulation and the possibility that it is maintained over the years remains unknown. Furthermore, these and other studies suggest that the enlargement of the laser scar could be a potentially vision‐threatening long‐term complication after two years, since it may cause the gradual occurrence of a blind spot in the centre of the visual field due to progressive atrophy of the retina.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Interventions to slow progression of nearsightedness in children

Nearsightedness (myopia) causes blurry vision when looking at distant objects. Approximately 33% of the population in the United States is nearsighted, and some Asian countries report that up to 80% of children are nearsighted. Several studies have examined a variety of methods (including eye drops, incomplete correction (known as 'undercorrection') of nearsightedness, multifocal lenses and contact lenses) to slow the worsening of nearsightedness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Amblyopia in children: Overview

In some children one eye is favored by the brain because it provides a better image. If this happens, the other eye is neglected from childhood on, and it does not get the chance to fully develop. This is known as amblyopia or “lazy eye.”

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 24, 2014

Excimer laser versus phakic intraocular lenses for the correction of moderate to high short‐sightedness

Myopia is a condition in which the focusing power (refraction) of the eye is greater than that required for clear vision of distant objects. Myopia is a common cause of visual disability throughout the world. The World Health Organization (WHO) has grouped myopia and uncorrected refractive error among the leading causes of blindness and vision impairment in the world. The overall power of the lens that would be needed to correct the myopia is expressed in diopters (D) of a sphere. Most people have some degree of astigmatism where the eye is better at focusing light in one meridian than it is at another. It is possible to combine the effect of any astigmatism with the overall focusing power of the eye as a spherical equivalent in diopters. There are two main types of surgical correction for moderate to high myopia; excimer laser and phakic intraocular lenses (IOLs). Excimer laser refractive surgery for myopia works by removing corneal stroma to lessen the refractive power of the cornea and to bring the image of a viewed object into focus onto the retina rather than in front of it. Phakic IOLs for the treatment of myopia work by diverging light rays so that the image of a viewed object is brought into focus onto the retina rather than in front of it. They can be placed either in the anterior chamber of the eye in front of the iris or in the posterior chamber of the eye between the iris and the natural lens.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Acupuncture for near‐sightedness in children

Myopia, also called near‐sightedness or short‐sightedness, is one of the most commonly occurring eye problems in children and adolescents. Early detection and treatment of initial myopia is associated with better outcomes of visual improvement and correction. Myopia is usually managed by wearing glasses and/or contact lenses. It is common practice for traditional Chinese medicine practitioners to use acupuncture for the treatment of myopia. Acupuncture is the stimulation of acupuncture points by needle insertion, acupressure, surface electrical and laser stimulation. This review aimed to assess the effectiveness and safety of acupuncture in slowing the progression of myopia in children and adolescents. We included two studies conducted in Taiwan with a total of 131 school children and did not combine the results as the two trials assessed different outcomes. One study found no significant difference in changes in the length of the eyes. Both studies found several children experienced mild pain while pressing and dropped out. The included studies in this review were unable to provide evidence of the effect of acupuncture for slowing the progression of myopia. More trials should be conducted where acupuncture is compared to placebo, other types of acupuncture are investigated, compliance with treatment for at least six months is explored and axial length elongation of the eye should be for at least one year.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Laser‐assisted in‐situ keratomileusis (LASIK) compared to photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for correcting short‐sightedness

Myopia is the term used to describe short or near‐sightedness, which means that you cannot see objects in the distance clearly. Most people with myopia wear spectacles or contact lenses. Glasses can be uncomfortable and are not practical for sport; contact lenses can be associated with corneal infections. For these reasons, some people choose to have surgery for myopia. Two commonly used surgical techniques are LASIK and PRK. Both these procedures use laser to remove corneal tissue and reshape the cornea. This review analyses the results from 13 clinical trials where 1923 eyes of 1135 participants were randomly treated with either LASIK or PRK. We considered the overall quality of evidence from these studies to be low. There was some evidence that LASIK gives a faster visual recovery than PRK, and is a less painful technique, although visual results one year after surgery were comparable. Surgical techniques are improving all the time and further trials are needed to see whether LASIK and PRK, as currently practised, are equally safe.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Amblyopia in children: Treatment options for amblyopia

There are different options for treating amblyopia in children, mostly depending on the type and severity of the condition.Some children only have one eye that focuses properly. This is known as amblyopia or "lazy eye" and is caused by the eyes sending two different images to the brain, which can happen when a child has strabismus (a squint) or is more nearsighted or farsighted in one eye than the other. The brain then ends up preferring the information coming from the stronger eye and neglecting the other.The severity of amblyopia largely determines the kind of treatment needed. The standard treatment options are:Glasses to correct refractive errors (nearsightedness or farsightedness, distorted vision).Eye patching (occlusion therapy): The stronger eye is covered with an eye patch for several hours a day. Children who wear glasses can fit the patch over one of the lenses. This is done to encourage the weaker eye to work harder so that vision improves. The word occlusion comes from Latin and means "closed."Drug therapy: Eye drops containing atropine or a similar drug are used to temporarily blur vision in the "good" eye. They relax the muscles in the eye so that the lens will not focus for a few hours.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 24, 2014

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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