Home > Search Results

Results: 1 to 20 of 24

Interventions for minimal change disease in adults with nephrotic syndrome

Nephrotic syndrome is a condition where the kidneys leak protein from the blood into the urine. Minimal change disease is the third most common primary kidney disease in adults with unexplained nephrotic syndrome (10% to 15%). Steroids have been used widely since the early 1970s for the treatment of adult‐onset minimal change disease, however the optimal agent, dose and duration has not been determined. This review identified three small studies (68 participants) comparing: 1) intravenous plus oral steroid treatment versus oral sterids; 2) oral versus short‐course intravenous steroid treatment; and 3) oral steroid treatment versus placebo. Only oral steroid treatment (compared to short‐course intravenous steroid treatment) showed an increase in the number of patients who achieved complete remission. However, the lack of available studies leaves important treatment questions unanswered; what is the optimal dose and duration of steroid treatment in new‐onset adult minimal change disease; how are relapses following steroid‐induced remission prevented and treated; and what are the appropriate treatments for steroid‐dependent or treatment‐resistant minimal change disease?

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Long‐acting beta2‐agonists for poorly reversible chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

This review aims to determine the effectiveness of long‐acting beta‐agonists, salmeterol or formoterol, in the treatment of COPD (emphysema/chronic bronchitis). These drugs improve airflow in the lungs, and enable people with COPD to get on with their daily activities. Twenty‐four studies (6061 participants) reported the effects of LABAs in people with COPD. People taking salmeterol 50 mcg daily do have fewer exacerbations than those on placebo, and some improvement in lung function and certain quality of life scores. The findings were not consistent enough to support a general recommendation for the use of these drugs in the group of people with COPD with minimal variation in their lung function, although there is some evidence of improvement in important outcomes and these findings require further exploration in additional trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

The long term effects of advice to cut down on salt in food on deaths, cardiovascular disease and blood pressure in adults

Intensive support and encouragement to reduce salt intake did lead to reduction in salt eaten. It also lowered blood pressure but only by a small amount (about 1 mmHg for systolic blood pressure, less for diastolic) after more than a year. This reduction was not enough to expect an important health benefit. It was also very hard to keep to a low salt diet. However, the reduction in blood pressure appeared larger for people with higher blood pressure.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Treatment for fatigue in Parkinson's disease

At least one‐third of people with Parkinson's disease complain about fatigue. It is unclear what treatment is best to reduce fatigue in people with Parkinson's disease.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Blood transfusion policies for sickle cell disease in pregnancy

Sickle cell disease is an inherited disorder of haemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen. In this condition, an abnormal haemoglobin S from one parent is combined with another abnormal haemoglobin from the other parent. Haemoglobin S inherited from both parents (genotype HbSS), described as sickle cell anaemia is the most common form.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Internet‐based programmes for people with heart disease

Heart disease is the most common cause of ill health and preventable death. Cardiac rehabilitation is a programme that helps people with heart disease gain better health. It is held in group classes that take place at hospitals or within the community. People attend these classes once or twice a week for around six to eight weeks. The classes usually involve exercising, and receiving advice on ways to improve their health. People needing these programmes are not always able to attend them. An alternative is to provide this programme through the Internet. In this review we looked at whether programmes delivered through the Internet are helpful in improving death rates, the need for surgery, repeated heart attacks, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, health‐related quality of life (HRQOL), diet, physical activity, medication compliance, healthcare usage, and costs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Transient elastography for measurement of liver fibrosis and cirrhosis in people with alcoholic liver disease

Liver fibrosis is a change in the microscopic structure of the liver because of liver inflammation. After many years of excessive alcohol consumption, liver fibrosis progresses to cirrhosis. Abstaining from alcohol may stop the fibrosis from further progression into significant or severe fibrosis and cirrhosis. The latter lead to complications of underlying diseases, including cancer.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Lowering the dose of or stopping anti‐TNF drugs in people with rheumatoid arthritis who are doing well

We conducted a review of studies in which the dose of anti‐TNF drugs (adalimumab, certolizumab pegol, etanercept, golimumab and infliximab) was lowered or treatment was stopped in people with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) who use anti‐TNFs and are doing well. Upon systematically searching for all relevant studies up to September 2013, we found seven studies involving 1203 participants. Study duration ranged from 24 weeks to 18 months.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Interactive computer‐based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people

Overweight and obesity are common health problems and increase the risk of developing several serious health conditions. The standard treatment for overweight and obesity is to help patients change their diet and exercise habits. Treatment programs in which patients interact with a computer may help people make these changes, and improve their ability to lose weight and keep it off. We looked for randomized or quasi‐randomized trials in which an interactive computer intervention was compared with no treatment, a limited treatment such as usual care or paper materials, or an in‐person treatment to help people lose weight or keep it off. We included 14 weight loss studies with a total of 2537 participants, and four weight maintenance studies with a total of 1603 participants. The length of treatment ranged from four weeks to 30 months. At six months, computer‐based interventions led to greater weight loss than minimal interventions (mean difference ‐1.5 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) ‐2.1 to ‐0.9; two trials) but less than in‐person treatment (mean difference 2.1 kg; 95% CI 0.8 to 3.4; one trial). At six months, computer‐based interventions were superior to a minimal control intervention in limiting weight regain (mean difference ‐0.7 kg; 95% CI ‐1.2 to ‐0.2; two trials), but not superior to infrequent in‐person treatment (mean difference 0.5 kg; 95% ‐0.5 to 1.6; two trials).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Living with metastatic breast cancer

Being diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer often means dealing with feelings of fear, anger and grief. Talking with close friends or relatives can help you cope with the flood of feelings. Exercise, relaxation and other activities that can take your mind off the cancer can improve your general wellbeing in everyday life too.Once metastatic tumors have developed outside of the breast tissue, complete recovery can rarely be expected. Then the aim of treatment is to keep your overall health and quality of life as good as possible for as long as possible.It is common to worry about only having very little time left. At the start it might feel like your entire life is now about waiting for the cancer to progress, new symptoms to arise and further treatments. This can make you feel dejected and hopeless, which may sometimes be more draining and troubling than the physical effects of the disease and its treatment. Many women also feel lonely at times, cut off from the outside world and their friends.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 7, 2016

Alternating current cranial electrotherapy stimulation in the treatment of depression

We reviewed the evidence on the use of cranial electrical stimulation (CES) in people with acute depression. More specifically, we were interested in examining the evidence from high quality clinical trials in which patients with acute depression were randomly assigned to treatment with either active CES or sham (simulated) CES, We found no high quality studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Vertebroplasty for osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures

Osteoporosis is characterised by thin, fragile bones. Osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures are minimal trauma fractures of the vertebral (spine) bones (vertebrae). They can cause severe pain and disability.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Comparison between different concentrations of fluoride toothpaste for preventing tooth decay in children and adolescents

Many children experience painful tooth decay which can lead to the tooth/teeth being extracted. Even if teeth are not extracted the tooth decay may be distressing, be expensive to treat and may involve children and their carers having time off school and work.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Yoga as an additional treatment option for people with asthma

Asthma is a common chronic disease that affects about 300 million people worldwide. Yoga, the popularity of which has expanded globally, has the potential to relieve some asthma‐related problems. However, the effects of yoga for asthma need to be confirmed due to the inconsistent findings of existing studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Peripheral laser iridotomy for pigmentary glaucoma

Glaucoma is a chronic eye condition associated with vision loss over time. One of the major risk factors for glaucoma is increased pressure in the eye, known as ocular hypertension. In eyes with pigment dispersion syndrome (PDS), particles from the iris (colored part of the eye) break off from the iris and are deposited on other parts within the eye. Sometimes, these particles block the flow of fluid out of the front portion of the eye, leading to ocular hypertension. Pigmentary glaucoma is a specific form of glaucoma that may be found in patients with PDS. Topcial medical therapy is usually the first‐line treatment; however, peripheral laser iridotomy has been proposed as an alternate treatment.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Exercise for osteoarthritis of the knee

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of joints, such as the hip. When the joint loses cartilage, the bone grows to try to repair the damage. However, instead of making things better, the bone grows abnormally and makes things worse. For example, the bone can become misshapen and make the joint painful and unstable. Doctors used to think that OA simply resulted in thinning of the cartilage. However, it is now known that OA is a disease of the whole joint.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Anti‐vascular endothelial growth factor for macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion

We reviewed the evidence about the effect of anti‐vascular endothelial growth factor (anti‐VEGF) agents in people with macular oedema secondary to central retinal vein occlusion (CRVO).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Oral herbal therapies for treating osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease of the joints (commonly knees, hips, hands). When joints lose cartilage, bone grows to try to repair the damage. Instead of making things better, however, the bone grows abnormally and makes things worse. For example, the bone can become misshapen and make the joint painful and limit movement. OA can affect your physical function, particularly your ability to use your joints.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Diacerein for osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis. In OA, the cartilage that protects the ends of the bones breaks down, causing pain and swelling. OA can affect any joint, but the knees, hips and hands are the joints most often studied in clinical trials. In all, 10% of the world’s population aged 60 or older have pain or disability from OA.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Smart Health Choices: Making Sense of Health Advice

This book aims to help consumers and practitioners develop the skills to assess health advice – and hopefully to make decisions that will improve the quality of their care. For some people, making better-informed decisions could be life saving. We hope that it will be useful if you are struggling to come to terms with an illness or injury, and the best ways of managing it. Or you may simply want to lead a healthier life, and may be wondering how to make sense of the often conflicting flood of health information that deluges us every day, through the media, and from our friends and health practitioners.

Hammersmith Press.

Version: 2008
Show search results within this document

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (109)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (2)...

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...