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Results: 10

Premenstrual syndrome

Many women experience abdominal pain or a headache, are tense, sad and irritable or feel bloated and uncomfortable in the days leading up to their period. The medical term for this is “premenstrual syndrome” (PMS), also known as “premenstrual tension” (PMT).

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 31, 2013

Premenstrual syndrome: Can relaxation techniques or psychological treatments relieve the symptoms?

Premenstrual syndrome can be treated with cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) as well as with medications for depression (antidepressants). It has not been scientifically proven which method is better. But research suggests that CBT can relieve symptoms of depression and that, in women it has helped, its effects last longer than antidepressant medication.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 5, 2013

Progesterone for premenstrual syndrome

There is little good evidence for treating premenstrual syndrome with progesterone. Five per cent or more of women experience symptoms, severe enough to damage work and relationships, only in the days leading to their menstrual periods. Blood progesterone levels usually rise after ovulation and fall again before menstruation. It has been suggested that premenstrual syndrome (PMS) might have been caused by too little progesterone or falling levels.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Acupuncture for polycystic ovarian syndrome

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is characterised by the clinical signs of infrequent or very light menstruation, failure to conceive, and excessive hair growth. The current standard western medical treatments for women with PCOS are prescription medications, surgery and lifestyle changes, whether or not they want to become pregnant. However, problems associated with current western therapies are the cost, increased risk of multiple pregnancies, undesirable side effects and inconsistency in their effectiveness. On the other hand, various non‐randomised studies of acupuncture in PCOS have suggested low rates of associated adverse events, no increased risk of multiple pregnancy and that it is comparatively inexpensive to administer. However, it should be emphasised that these conclusions are made based on the findings of non‐randomised controlled studies alone and therefore may not reliably support the effectiveness and use of acupuncture in this area.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for premenstrual syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is a common cause of physical, psychological and social problems in women of reproductive age. PMS is distinguished from 'normal' premenstrual symptoms by the degree of distress and disruption it causes. Symptoms occur during the period leading up to the menstrual period and are relieved by the onset of menstruation. Common symptoms include irritability, depression, anxiety and lethargy. A clinical diagnosis of PMS requires that the symptoms are confirmed by prospective recording (that is recorded as they occur) for at least two menstrual cycles and that they cause substantial distress or impairment to daily life. It is estimated that approximately one in five women of reproductive age are affected. PMS can severely disrupt a woman's daily life and some women seek medical treatment. Researchers in The Cochrane Collaboration reviewed the evidence about the effectiveness and safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for treating PMS. They examined the research up to February 2013.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Overview: Period pain

Many girls and women have problems like abdominal cramps and pain during their menstrual period. The medical term for painful periods is “dysmenorrhea.”

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: September 24, 2013

Treating PMS symptoms

Some women who have premenstrual syndrome (PMS) have such bad symptoms in the days before their period that it keeps them from doing the things they usually do. But there are different ways of coping with and treating typical symptoms such as pain, breast tenderness and mood swings.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 31, 2013

Endometrial Cancer Prevention (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about factors that may influence the risk of developing endometrial cancer and about research aimed at the prevention of this disease.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 6, 2013

Birth control pills with three phases versus one phase

Standard birth control pills contain two hormones: progestogen and estrogen. One‐phase birth control pills contain the same dose of progestogen and estrogen every day. Four‐phase birth control pills contain different amounts of progestogen and estrogen on different days. This review looked at how well one‐phase birth control pills and four‐phase birth control pills work to prevent pregnancy, how often they cause bleeding problems, how often users experience side effects and how many women stop using the pills.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Luteal phase support for assisted reproduction

A woman's menstrual cycle consists of different phases. After ovulation the luteal phase starts and lasts until the next menstruation. It is named after the corpus luteum, the yellow body. This consists of the remnants of the ovulated egg in the ovary and produces different hormones, including progesterone. Progesterone stimulates proliferation of the lining of the uterus, preparing for implantation.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Vaginal bleeding
    Vaginal bleeding normally occurs during a woman's menstrual cycle, when she gets her period. Every woman's period is different. On average, a woman's period occurs every 28 days. Most women have cycles between 24 and 34 days apart. It usually lasts 4 - 7 days.
  • Painful menstrual periods
    Painful menstrual periods are periods in which a woman has crampy lower abdominal pain, sharp or aching pain that comes and goes, or possibly back pain.
  • Secondary amenorrhea
    Secondary amenorrhea is when a woman who has been having normal menstrual cycles stops getting her periods for 6 months or longer.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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