Home > Search Results

By injection: Helps prevent infection with influenza (flu) virus.

Into the nose: Helps prevent infection with influenza (flu) virus.

Nasal route: Influenza virus vaccine is used to prevent infection by the influenza viruses.

Intramuscular route: Influenza virus vaccine, recombinant is used to prevent infection caused by the influenza viruses in adults 18 years of age and older.

UsesSide effectsLatest evidence reviewsResearch summaries for consumersBrand names

Results: 1 to 20 of 26

Varicella and influenza vaccines may reduce morbidity in patients with blood cancers

Viral infections cause significant disease and even death in patients with blood cancers. In the current systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) we aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of viral vaccines in these patients. The pre‐defined primary outcome was incidence of the infection concerned. Secondary outcomes were mortality due to the viral infection, all‐cause mortality, incidence of complications, incidence of severe viral infection, hospitalization rate, in vitro immune response and frequency of adverse effects. Eight RCTs were included. They evaluated heat‐inactivated varicella zoster virus (VZV) vaccine (two trials), influenza vaccines (five trials) and inactivated poliovirus vaccine (one trial). There were no RCTs on other viral vaccines (hepatitis A, hepatitis B, measles, mumps, rubella). Only the two trials on VZV vaccine reported our pre‐defined primary outcome. All trials reported some of the pre‐defined secondary outcomes. We found that inactivated VZV vaccine might reduce the severity of herpes zoster when given before and after stem cell transplant in adults with lymphoma or leukemia. Inactivated influenza vaccine might reduce upper and lower respiratory infections and hospitalization in adults with multiple myeloma who are undergoing chemotherapy, or children with leukemia or lymphoma within two years post‐chemotherapy. However, the quality of evidence is not high. Local adverse effects occur frequently with the vaccines, although serious adverse effects appear uncommon. Further high‐quality RCTs are needed to clarify the benefits and optimal regimens of viral vaccines for patients with blood cancers.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Influenza vaccine for children and adults with bronchiectasis

In many countries, influenza vaccination is an accepted part of routine immunisation recommendations particularly in persons 65 years and over, those in long‐term care facilities and also adults and children with chronic illnesses including those with bronchiectasis. In this review however, our search for randomised control trials examining the effectiveness of influenza vaccines for people with bronchiectasis revealed no relevant studies. In the absence of evidence, patients' needs should be individualised and national guidelines be adhered to.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Influenza vaccine for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Despite the almost universal recommendation that people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) should receive an annual influenza vaccination, very few randomised controlled trials have evaluated the effect of influenza vaccination in these patients. This review looks at six studies in COPD patients and a further five in elderly or high risk patients, a proportion of whom had chronic lung disease. It shows that there is now some evidence from randomised trials that inactivated influenza vaccine indeed decreases "flare ups" of COPD, especially those that are related to the influenza virus itself. The inactivated influenza virus vaccine is given intramuscularly and is associated with an increase in local side effects such as pain at the site of injection. This is short‐lived, not serious and is outweighed by the long term benefit of the vaccine. The inactivated virus vaccine does not cause influenza or any significant worsening of COPD.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Vaccines for preventing influenza in people with cystic fibrosis

People with cystic fibrosis have blocked airways which results in frequent airway infections. Infections with viral diseases like influenza ("the flu") can worsen lung damage. Doctors therefore often advise people with cystic fibrosis to be vaccinated against influenza every year. We searched for studies which compared different vaccines or compared vaccination to placebo. We were able to include four studies with 179 people in the review. Most (143) were under 16 years old. No study compared one vaccine to placebo. There were a high number of drop outs in two of the studies. Vaccination does result in an immune system response to the types of influenza used in the vaccine. However, this response may not result in protection against influenza infection or lung damage. There were a high number of adverse events, but none were serious or persistent. There is no evidence to show if regular influenza vaccine benefits people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Vaccines for preventing seasonal influenza and its complications in people aged 65 or older

Influenza vaccination of elderly individuals is recommended worldwide as people aged 65 and older are at a higher risk of complications, hospitalisations and deaths from influenza. This review looked at evidence from experimental and non‐experimental studies carried out over 40 years of influenza vaccination. We included 75 studies. These were grouped first according to study design and then the setting (community or long‐term care facilities). The results are mostly based on non‐experimental (observational) studies, which are at greater risk of bias, as not many good quality trials were available. Trivalent inactivated vaccines are the most commonly used influenza vaccines. Due to the poor quality of the available evidence, any conclusions regarding the effects of influenza vaccines for people aged 65 years or older cannot be drawn. The public health safety profile of the vaccines appears to be acceptable.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Vaccines for preventing influenza in healthy children

Children (< 16 years old) and the elderly (above 65 years old) are the two age groups that appear to have the most complications following an influenza infection. Influenza has a viral origin and often results in an acute respiratory illness affecting the lower or upper parts of the respiratory tract, or both. Viruses are mainly of two subtypes (A or B) and spread periodically during the autumn‐winter months. However, many other viruses can also cause respiratory tract illnesses.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Vaccines to prevent influenza in healthy adults

We evaluated the effect of immunisation with influenza vaccines on preventing influenza A or B infections (efficacy), influenza‐like illness (ILI) and its consequences (effectiveness), and determined whether exposure to influenza vaccines is associated with serious or severe harms. The target populations were healthy adults, including pregnant women and newborns.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Homeopathic Oscillococcinum® for preventing and treating influenza and influenza‐like illness

To determine whether homeopathic Oscillococcinum® is more effective than placebo in the prevention and/or treatment of influenza and influenza‐like illness in adults or children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Influenza vaccination in children being treated with chemotherapy for cancer

Children with cancer are prone to developing infection. One of the viral infections is influenza (flu). This can run an innocent course in these children, but some can develop severe complications. This review therefore focused on the efficacy of influenza vaccination in children with cancer. We identified no studies that assessed the clinical efficacy of influenza vaccination; however, we identified one additional controlled clinical trial in our update, which brings the total to nine studies that assessed immune responses after vaccination in children with cancer. It was shown that children receiving chemotherapy mount poorer immune responses than healthy children, but that the vaccine can be safely administered. On the basis of this updated review, it is not possible to recommend or discourage influenza vaccination in children with cancer who are treated with chemotherapy. A future trial should address the clinical benefits of influenza vaccination in children with cancer who are treated with chemotherapy.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Influenza vaccination for healthcare workers who care for people aged 60 or older living in long‐term care institutions

We wanted to know if vaccinating healthcare workers against influenza reduces the risk of older individuals in long‐term care institutions (LTCIs) acquiring influenza infections from healthcare workers.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Interventions to increase influenza (flu) vaccination uptake for people aged 60 and older

Many health authorities recommend influenza vaccination of older people. However, vaccination uptake in people aged 60 and older varies across countries, socioeconomic and health‐risk groups. It is important to identify effective interventions to increase influenza vaccination uptake.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Flu vaccines for preventing cardiovascular disease

Flu infection may make cardiovascular disease (e.g. heart attack, stroke) and associated death more likely, and flu vaccination may reduce this risk. We included randomised studies comparing people receiving flu vaccine with those receiving no vaccine (placebo or no treatment). For this review update, we found eight trials studying 12,029 participants. Four of these studies examined patients with known heart disease (1682 participants), and the other four focused on the general population or elderly people (10,347 participants). The general population studies reported cardiovascular disease outcomes as part of their safety analyses, but the numbers of cases were too few to allow a judgement on whether flu vaccination was protective in these populations, and no differences were seen between groups. Overall, studies in people with heart disease suggest that flu vaccination may reduce death as a result of cardiovascular disease and may reduce combined cardiovascular disease events (such as heart attacks, strokes, necessity for bypass operations, etc.). However, these studies were small and had some risk of bias, so larger studies of better quality are needed to confirm the results.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Vaccines for preventing flu in people with asthma

Asthma is a condition that affects the airways – the small tubes that carry air in and out of the lungs ‐ and the symptoms are generally coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath and chest tightness. The symptoms can be occasional or persistent. When a person with asthma breathes in an asthma trigger (something that irritates their airways), the muscles around the walls of the airways tighten so that the airways become narrower and the lining of the airways becomes inflamed and starts to swell. For many people with asthma, cold and flu viruses trigger their symptoms. Therefore, getting a flu virus makes their asthma worse and having a flu jab (influenza vaccine) may protect people against some of the flu viruses that they will come into contact with in a given winter. However, the effects of a flu jab (vaccination) are not straightforward as there is also the possibility that the flu jab itself could cause a worsening of asthma. Current guidelines in the UK recommend that high‐risk groups such as people with severe asthma should have a flu jab each winter (NHS Choices); however, there is limited evidence for this approach.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Influenza vaccine for preventing acute otitis media (middle ear infection)

We reviewed the effect of influenza vaccine on preventing acute otitis media (AOM) in infants and children. We identified 10 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) involving 16,707 children aged six months to six years, of either sex and of any ethnicity, with or without a history of recurrent AOM.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Combined DTP‐HBV‐HIB vaccine versus separately administered DTP‐HBV and HIB vaccines in healthy infants up to two years old

Childhood vaccinations provide an effective method of protection against diseases. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that routine infant immunisation programmes include a vaccination against Haemophilus influenzae (H. influenza) type B (HIB) in the combined diphtheria‐tetanus‐pertussis (DTP)‐hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccination. We compared the combined DTP‐HBV‐HIB vaccine with the separate DTP‐HBV and HIB vaccines. Studies only reported on immunogenicity and reactogenicity.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Influenza (flu) vaccination for preventing influenza in adults with cancer

Adults with cancer are prone to serious complications from influenza, more than healthy adults. The influenza vaccine protects against influenza and its complications. However, its effectiveness among cancer patients is unclear, as the immune dysfunction that accompanies cancer and as a result of chemotherapy might lower immune response to the vaccine. Cancer patients, therefore, do not have clear information on the importance, need and safety of the vaccine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Pneumonia (pneumococcal) vaccines for children and adults with bronchiectasis

In many countries pneumonia vaccination (for the protection against infection of the bacteria pneumococcus), is part of the immunisation schedule for infants as well as for people with bronchiectasis. In this review, our search for randomised control trials that examined the effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccines for people with bronchiectasis revealed one randomised and one quasi‐controlled trial. We conclude that, albeit the limitations of the review, adults and children (when age appropriate) with bronchiectasis should be vaccinated with the 23‐valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine as suggested in many national guidelines. Due to absence of data on how often the vaccine should be given, we recommend that national guidelines be followed until further evidence is available.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Haemophilus influenzae type B and viral influenza vaccinations during pregnancy for improving maternal, neonatal and infant health outcomes

Maternal immunisation with Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) and viral influenza vaccines may reduce the risk of infections in mothers and infants, however, this is an area of controversy. Both infections can cause severe pneumonia and deaths among children under five years of age, particularly in developing countries. Rates of influenza‐associated complications and consequent hospitalisations are substantially higher among pregnant women, infants and newborns. Pregnant women who are vaccinated against influenza have protective levels of anti‐influenza antibodies, which can be passively transferred to the infant to improve their health outcomes. Infants of immune mothers usually have influenza symptoms that are delayed in onset and of shorter duration. This review investigated whether vaccinating pregnant women with Hib and viral influenza vaccinations during pregnancy could reduce the risk of infection among mothers and babies and improve health outcomes for both.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Vaccines for women to prevent tetanus in newborn babies

Review question: Our review evaluated the existing evidence on immunisation with tetanus toxoid in women of reproductive age for the prevention of tetanus and death in newborn babies and to determine whether serious harms are associated with tetanus toxoid exposure.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Regulatory information on trials of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and zanamivir (Relenza) for influenza in adults and children

Oseltamivir and zanamivir have been stockpiled in many countries to treat and prevent seasonal and pandemic influenza, before an influenza vaccine matched to the circulating virus becomes available. Oseltamivir is classified by the World Health Organization as an essential medicine.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (644)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (13)...

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...