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Results: 5

Intravenous aminophylline for acute severe asthma in children over two years receiving inhaled bronchodilators

Acute asthma is a common paediatric emergency prevalent in many countries. Treatment aims to reverse asthma by opening up the airways and targeting the underlying inflammation of the airways. Beta‐agonists, anticholinergic agents and glucocorticoids are currently the most commonly used strategies. In the past, aminophylline has been extensively used for the management of acute asthma, despite side effects. However, its use has declined with the availability of effective inhaled bronchodilators and glucocorticoids. The purpose of this review was to assess whether the use of intravenous aminophylline in children receiving maximised inhaled bronchodilators and glucocorticoids produced additional beneficial effects. We identified a small number of good quality trials which compared aminophylline with placebo in children given inhaled bronchodilators and glucocorticoid therapy. This review found evidence that children treated with aminophylline had a greater improvement in lung function than children treated with placebo, when both groups received inhaled bronchodilators and steroids and they responded incompletely to these initial therapies. However, aminophylline use also resulted in greater risk of vomiting. Aminophylline use in children may be appropriate if children have a role in severe acute exacerbations of asthma where response to maximised therapy (inhaled bronchodilators and glucocorticoids) is poor. These results are based on small numbers and further work in this area is required.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Continuous infusion of loop diuretics are safer and more effective than intermittent administration for people with congestive heart failure

Congestive heart failure (CHF) is reduced ability of the heart to pump blood around the body. The body tries to compensate by retaining water to increase blood volume, but this further weakens the heart. Diuretic drugs reduce water in the body. Loop diuretics work on the deep part of the small kidney tubes. They are commonly used in repeated doses intravenously for CHF, but this can cause rapid fluid shifts and adverse effects. The review of trials found that continuous infusion of loop diuretics for people with CHF is more effective and has fewer adverse effects than intermittent doses.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Betamimetics for inhibiting preterm labour

Preterm labour is when women go into labour before 37 weeks' gestation. Babies born before term (preterm birth) have poorer outcomes compared with babies who are born at term. The earlier the baby is born, the poorer the outcome. Most preterm births occur in low‐income countries where medical help is less readily available. Preterm birth is a major cause of infant deaths and serious illness worldwide. Preterm birth can result in respiratory distress syndrome and chronic lung disease, bleeding into the fluid spaces (ventricles) within the brain (intraventricular haemorrhage)), generalised infection or infection of the blood stream (sepsis), cerebral palsy and other neuro‐developmental impairments. Even short delays in preterm birth can enable women to reach specialist care and receive 'corticosteroid' drugs that are given to women before birth to improve their babies' lung function.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Bronchodilators for the prevention and treatment of chronic lung disease in preterm infants

Not enough evidence to show the effect of bronchodilators for chronic lung disease (CLD) in preterm babies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Antifungal agents for infants and children with invasive fungal infections

Invasive fungal infections are a significant problem for children whose immune system is not functioning properly. The majority of the children have cancer. Antifungal medications can be given when these children develop a fever (for example a fever occurring when the white cells or neutrophils are low during chemotherapy) or when an infection has been formally identified (as in candidaemia, candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis). The antifungal agents that were compared appear equally efficacious. Pooling the data from the few studies that were available suggest kidney damage was less likely with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B compared with conventional amphotericin B. It is reasonable to recommend a lipid preparation of amphotericin B, if cost permits. No significant differences have been observed in children when other antifungal agents have been compared. More studies in children evaluating available antifungal are required to further clarify any benefits with regard to the risk of dying, prospects of complete recovery and drug toxicities.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

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