Home > Search Results

About - Fat

Body Fat: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (adipocytes). It is the site of stored fats, usually in the form of triglycerides.

Dietary Fat: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.

Lipids: A term for fat in the body. Lipids can be broken down by the body and used for energy.

Results: 1 to 20 of 200

Low‐fat diets for acquired hypercholesterolaemia

There is currently no firm evidence of the long‐term (at least six months) effects of low‐fat diets for otherwise healthy people with acquired, that is not familial hypercholesterolaemia (high cholesterol levels in the blood). Various low‐fat diets have been investigated in people with long‐term illnesses, however, a high quality trial of at least six months duration in otherwise healthy people with high blood cholesterol is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

High‐carbohydrate, high‐protein, low‐fat tube feeds versus low‐carbohydrate, high‐protein, high‐fat tube feeds for patients with severe burns

Patients with severe burn injuries have increased metabolic needs. For this and other reasons, they are often fed a formula through a tube inserted directly into the stomach or small intestine, a process known as enteral feeding. Aggressive enteral feeding of burn patients with a high‐protein diet is a core component of the treatment of severe burn injuries. However, the optimal proportions of fats and carbohydrates in feeding formulas are unknown. This review of 93 burn patients in two randomized controlled trials found that high‐carbohydrate, high‐protein, low‐fat enteral feeds reduced incidence of pneumonia compared with low‐carbohydrate, high‐protein, high‐fat enteral feeds in patients hospitalized with severe burn injuries. No conclusions could be made about the effect of different enteral feeding regimens on death.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

High cholesterol: Does reducing the amount of fat in your diet help?

Reducing the amount of saturated fats in your diet seems to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. Saturated fats are mainly found in animal food products.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 29, 2013

Fat supplementation of human milk for promoting growth in preterm infants

enterocolitis).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Cutting down or changing the fat we eat may reduce our risk of heart disease

Modifying fat in our food (replacing some saturated (animal) fats with plant oils and unsaturated spreads) may reduce risk of heart and vascular disease, but it is not clear whether monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fats are more beneficial. There are no clear health benefits of replacing saturated fats with starchy foods (reducing the total amount of fat we eat). Heart and vascular disease includes heart attacks, angina, strokes, sudden cardiovascular death and the need for heart surgery. Modifying the fat we eat seems to protect us better if we adhere in doing so for at least two years. It is not clear whether people who are currently healthy benefit as much as those at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (people with hypertension, raised serum lipids or diabetes for example) and people who already have heart disease, but the suggestion is that they would all benefit to some extent.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Not enough evidence is available to prove that hormonal contraceptives do not influence glucose and fat metabolism in women with diabetes mellitus

It is important for both women with diabetes mellitus type 1 and type 2 to receive good advice which contraceptive method is best to use. Unplanned pregnancies can lead to serious health issues for both mother and child in women with diabetes. Yet, hormonal contraceptives have been reported to influence glucose and fat metabolism. In this review, both progestogen‐only methods (pills and an intrauterine device) and low‐dose combined oral contraceptives appeared to have only minor influences on glucose and fat metabolism. However only four studies, most of limited quality, examining a small number of women were included in this review. Only one of the studies reported on true clinical endpoints that is micro‐ and macrovascular disease. It found no signs or symptoms of thromboembolic incidents or visual disturbances. However this trial was performed over a short period of time. Therefore no definite conclusions can be made based on this review. Future trials analysing glucose and fat metabolism as well as long‐term complications for all available contraceptive methods are needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Surgical removal of bony wall or orbital fat for thyroid eye disease

Thyroid eye disease is an autoimmune disorder affecting 30% to 50% of patients with Graves' disease. Severe forms present in 3% to 5% of patients with reduced vision due to pressure on the optic nerve. The disease is more frequent in women and it significantly impairs the quality of life of affected patients. The clinical presentation is characterised by inflammation of the orbital contents which increases the volume of fat and muscles, resulting in forward placement of the eyes (exophthalmos), retraction of the eyelids and double vision. Multiple surgical procedures may be required for correction after initial medical treatment has proven ineffective.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Newer alternative fat emulsions versus the conventional pure soybean oil based fat emulsions for intravenous nutrition in preterm infants.

Background: Preterm infants who need nutrition through intravenous lines have been conventionally given pure soy oil based fat emulsions. High polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) content in pure soy oil based emulsions can, however, be harmful to preterm infants. The newer lipid emulsions (LE) from alternative lipid sources with reduced PUFA content may improve clinical outcomes in preterm infants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Effect of cutting down on the saturated fat we eat on our risk of heart disease

We wanted to find out the effects on health of cutting down on saturated fat in our food (replacing animal fats with plant oils, unsaturated spreads and more starchy foods).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Effect of cutting down the fat we eat on body weight

The ideal proportion of energy from fat in our food and its relation to body weight is not clear. This review looked at the effect of cutting down the proportion of energy from fat in our food on body weight and fatness in both adults and children who are not aiming to lose weight. The review found that cutting down on the proportion of fat in our food leads to a small but noticeable decrease in body weight, body mass index and waist circumference. This effect was found both in adults and children. The effect did not change over time.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Dietary advice for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus in adults

No high quality data on the efficacy of diet alone exists for treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. This systematic review assesses the effects of studies that examined dietary advice with or without the addition of exercise or behavioural approaches. Eighteen studies were included. No data were found on micro‐ or macrovascular diabetic complications, mortality or quality of life. It is difficult to draw reliable conclusions from the limited data that are presented in this review, however, the addition of exercise to dietary advice showed improvement of metabolic control after six‐ and twelve‐month follow‐up.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Exercise for type 2 diabetes mellitus

Exercise, dietary changes and medications are frequently used in the management of type 2 diabetes. However, it is difficult to determine the independent effect of exercise from some trials because exercise has been combined with dietary modifications or medications, or compared with a control which includes another form of intervention. The review authors aimed to determine the effect of exercise on blood sugar control in type 2 diabetes.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

The effect of a healthy lifestyle for women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a very common condition affecting 4% to 18% of women. Being overweight worsens all clinical features of PCOS. These clinical features include reproductive manifestations such as reduced frequency of ovulation and irregular menstrual cycles, reduced fertility, polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, and high male hormones such as testosterone which can cause excess facial or body hair growth and acne. PCOS is also associated with metabolic features and diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors including high levels of insulin or insulin resistance and abnormal cholesterol levels. PCOS affects quality of life and can worsen anxiety and depression either due to the features of PCOS or due to the diagnosis of a chronic disease. A healthy lifestyle consists of a healthy diet, regular exercise and achieving and maintaining a healthy weight. This review identified six studies with 164 participants that assessed the effects of a healthy lifestyle in women with PCOS. In this review, there were no studies reporting on fertility outcomes such as pregnancy, live birth and miscarriage. While some studies reported on menstrual regularity and ovulation, the findings were reported in a variety of ways and it was not possible to estimate the overall effects of lifestyle on these outcomes. Current evidence suggests that following a healthy lifestyle reduces body weight and abdominal fat, reduces testosterone and improves both hair growth, and improves insulin resistance. There was no evidence that a healthy lifestyle improved cholesterol or glucose levels in women with PCOS.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Dietary advice for reducing cardiovascular risk

Diet is an important determinant of chronic disease risk, particularly heart disease. This review assessed the effects of providing dietary advice to healthy adults in order to produce sustained improvements in their diets. Whether dietary improvement would reduce the risk factors associated with heart disease was also examined. We found 44 trials in which healthy adults were randomly assigned to receive dietary advice or no dietary advice. The dietary improvements recommended to the people in the intervention groups centred largely on the reduction of salt and fat intake and an increase in the intake of fruit, vegetables and fibre. Advice was delivered in a variety of ways, including one‐to‐one contact, group sessions and written materials. There were variations in intensity of the intervention, ranging from one contact per study participant to 50 hours of counselling over four years. The duration of the trials ranged from three months to four years, with a median follow‐up period of 12 months. There was some evidence of greater effectiveness in people told that they were at risk of heart disease or cancer. Modest improvements were shown in cardiovascular risk factors, such as blood pressure and total and LDL‐cholesterol levels. In the trials that separated effects by gender, women tended to make larger reductions in fat intake but there was insufficient evidence to show whether this translated to a larger reduction in total cholesterol levels. Two trials followed people up 10 to 15 years after the end of the trials and showed that the beneficial changes in cardiovascular risk factors may have resulted in a reduced incidence of heart disease, stroke or heart attack, although more evidence is needed to confirm this.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Dietary modifications for managing familial hypercholesterolaemia

Familial hypercholesterolaemia is an inherited disorder characterised by a raised blood cholesterol, and premature ischaemic heart disease. Changing diet is an important management option to reduce low‐density lipoprotein cholesterol (the bad cholesterol) levels. Recently, certain lipid‐lowering drugs have shown to be safe and effective for the treatment of children with familial hypercholesterolaemia. However, dietary management remains important either on its own or combined with drug therapy. Several strategies are used to modify diet. This review aimed to compare cholesterol‐lowering dietary interventions either in combination with each other or alone. These interventions included adding omega‐3 fatty acids or plant sterols or plant stanols or soya proteins to diet. Fifteen trials were included in this updated review. The included trials had either a low or unclear risk of bias for most of the domains used for risk assessment. All the trials were short term and the majority were cross‐over in design. For most of the comparisons there was no significant difference in the various intervention strategies when compared to cholesterol‐lowering diet. However, for total cholesterol levels, serum low density lipoprotein (LDL) concentrations, a significant benefit was obtained with plant sterols. However, before drawing any conclusions, methodological problems with pooling results from cross‐over trials should be considered. There is a need for long‐term trials with parallel group design to assess the potential benefits and harms of a cholesterol‐lowering diet.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

How does the gallbladder work?

The gallbladder stores and concentrates bile from the liver. The bile then helps to digest and absorb fats from food in the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: November 7, 2012

Shopping tips for people with lactose intolerance

People who are sensitive to lactose need to read the labels on food packaging very carefully.Here you can find out what to watch for when you shop and how much lactose different foods have in them.All packaged foods have a label on them with information such as:Best before dateAll ingredientsIngredients that commonly trigger allergies or food intolerancesNutritional content and calories

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 17, 2015

How does skin work?

The skin is one of our body’s heaviest and largest organs. Depending on body size and shape, it weighs between 3.5 and 10 kilograms (7.5 and 22 pounds) and is 1.5 to 2 square meters big.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: July 28, 2016

High cholesterol: General measures to reduce cholesterol levels

High cholesterol levels could mean an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. People who would like to lower their risk do not necessarily have to take medication. General measures like changing your diet can also have a beneficial effect and improve your heart health.As long as cholesterol levels are not very high, they are not a sign of disease, but merely a risk factor. Treatment for high cholesterol is not only about lowering cholesterol levels. Instead, it is more about reducing a higher risk of cardiovascular disease to a normal level, if possible. Treatments can only be considered well tested if researchers have also looked at whether they actually prevent heart disease.Many people who want to do something about their high cholesterol levels would rather not take medication. General measures recommended for the reduction of cholesterol and prevention of cardiovascular disease include:not smokingreducing the amount of saturated fats in your dietgetting a lot of exerciselosing weight

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 29, 2013

High blood pressure: Do special diets make a difference?

People with high blood pressure are often advised to change their diet. However, it has not been proved that a "healthy" diet low in animal fats and high in fruits and vegetables can lower blood pressure and the risk of complications.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 27, 2014

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

See all (2092)...

Systematic Review Methods in PubMed

See all (6)...

Recent Activity

    Your browsing activity is empty.

    Activity recording is turned off.

    Turn recording back on

    See more...