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Results: 4

Honey for acute cough in children

We wanted to know if honey can reduce cough symptoms caused by bacteria and viruses in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Drugs to treat phantom limb pain in those with missing limbs

Various medications have been tried in phantom limb pain but good treatment continues to be unsatisfactory. Whether opioids, N‐methyl D‐aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists (e.g. ketamine, memantine, dextromethorphan), anticonvulsants, antidepressants, calcitonin and anaesthetics are effective in improving outcomes that include pain, function, mood sleep, quality of life, satisfaction and safety, in the short‐ and long‐term, remains uncertain. Morphine, gabapentin, and ketamine provided short‐term pain relief but the findings were based mostly on small studies. The results for calcitonin and anaesthetics were variable. Considerable differences in the drugs, methods, designs, outcomes, outcome measures, follow‐ups, analyses, and reporting/presenting of findings made it difficult to combine results for the interventions and outcomes. Results must be interpreted with caution as these relied on a few studies with small numbers of study participants and lacked long‐term efficacy and safety data. Good quality studies with sufficient sample size, longer follow‐ups and with outcomes that are important to patients are needed to make firmer recommendations to enable good advice on the best pain relief for this patient population.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment for cramps in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease

A cramp is a sudden, involuntary painful contraction of a muscle. Many people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neuron disease (MND), experience cramps during the course of the disease. These range from mild cramps that do not affect daily activities and sleep, through to very severe, painful cramps. Some medications that are used to treat cramps in people with no medical condition or with conditions other than ALS have been tested in ALS clinical trials. These medicines include vitamin E, creatine, quinidine, and gabapentin. Other medications such as quinine sulfate, magnesium, lioresal, dantrolene, clonazepam, diphenylhydantoin, and gabapentin have been used to treat cramps in people with ALS but their effectiveness is unknown. In 2006 and 2010 the US Food and Drugs Administration issued warnings concerning the use of quinine sulfate, which was the previously most widely prescribed medication for cramps in the US. This review sought to find out how effective medications and physical treatments for cramps are for people with ALS. The reviewers identified 20 randomised controlled trials in people with ALS comprising a total of 4789 participants. Only one trial, of the drug tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), directly investigated the effectiveness of an intervention for cramps. Thirteen randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps secondarily among other variables. The medications comprised vitamin E, baclofen, riluzole, L‐threonine, xaliproden, indinavir, and memantine. Six randomised controlled ALS trials investigated cramps as adverse events. The medications comprised creatine, gabapentin, dextromethorphan, quinidine and lithium. None of the 20 studies could demonstrate any benefit, but the studies were small. Current evidence on the treatment of cramps in ALS is lacking and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Over‐the‐counter (OTC) medications for acute cough in children and adults in community settings

We undertook a review to determine the effectiveness of over‐the‐counter cough medicines in reducing cough in children and adults in community settings. We found 29 trials involving 4835 people.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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