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Feeding interventions for growth and development in infants with cleft lip, cleft palate or cleft lip and palate

Cleft lip and cleft palate (the roof of the mouth) are common defects. The severity of the cleft (opening) varies and it can occur on one (unilateral) or both sides (bilateral). It can be difficult to feed babies enough nutritious food when they have this condition, and there is evidence of delayed development in children born with cleft.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

The use of recombinant growth hormone to improve growth and health in children and young adults with cystic fibrosis

We reviewed the evidence about the effects of man‐made human growth hormone on growth and health of people with cystic fibrosis.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

No evidence that delayed introduction of progressive enteral feeds prevents necrotising enterocolitis in very low birth weight infants

Very preterm (less than 32 weeks' gestation) or very low birth weight (less than 1500 g) infants are at risk of developing a severe bowel disorder called necrotising enterocolitis, where parts of the bowel become inflamed and start to die. One possible way to prevent this condition is to delay the introduction of milk feeds until several days (or longer) after birth.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Early trophic feeding versus enteral fasting for very preterm or very low birth weight infants

There is insufficient evidence to determine whether feeding very preterm or very low birth weight infants small quantities of milk during the first week after birth (early trophic feeding) compared with fasting helps bowel development and improves subsequent feeding, growth and development. Analysis of nine trials does not suggest that this practice increases the risk of a severe bowel disorder called 'necrotising enterocolitis'. Further trials could provide more robust evidence to inform this key area of care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Pregnancy and birth: Before preterm birth: What do steroids do?

If a baby is at risk of being born too early, giving the mother steroids before the birth can help her unborn baby's lungs to develop more quickly. This reduces the risk of the newborn having serious complications or dying.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 1, 2014

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood medulloblastoma and childhood supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal and pineal tumors.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 25, 2015

Optimal duration of exclusive breastfeeding

Exclusive breastfeeding for six months (versus three to four months, with continued mixed breastfeeding thereafter) reduces gastrointestinal infection and helps the mother lose weight and prevent pregnancy but has no long‐term impact on allergic disease, growth, obesity, cognitive ability, or behaviour.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Chinese herbal medicines for hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism, also known as underactive or low thyroid, is a condition in which the thyroid gland does not produce sufficient amounts of thyroid hormones which are important for many functions of the body (metabolism). In adults hypothyroidism may cause fatigue and sluggishness, increased sensitivity to cold, constipation, pale and dry skin, brittle fingernails and hair, a puffy face, hoarse voice, unexplained weight gain, muscle aches, tenderness, stiffness and weakness, pain, stiffness or swelling in the joints, heavier than normal menstrual periods, and depression. Hypothyroidism in infants and teenagers may result in poor growth and mental development as well as delayed development of permanent teeth and puberty.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Prostate Cancer, Nutrition, and Dietary Supplements (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of nutrition and dietary supplements for reducing the risk of developing prostate cancer or for treating prostate cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 22, 2015

Targeted drug therapy for advanced kidney cancer

Cancer of the kidney is an important health problem with over 15,000 deaths in North America annually. Kidney cancer in adults that has spread or is too advanced for surgery is incurable and is resistant to conventional chemotherapy drugs. Drugs that affect the body's immune system have been standard care in the past two decades but have been associated with unpleasant side effects and poor results in most patients. Recent advances in understanding the molecular biology of kidney cancer have resulted in the development of drugs that target known molecular pathways (targeted therapy). This review critically examines reports of clinical trials that have directly compared the new targeted "designer" drugs with previous standard therapies for this condition, to see if these drugs could be considered an advance in care.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Bone Marrow or Blood Stem Cell Transplants in Children With Certain Rare Inherited Metabolic Diseases: A Review of the Research for Parents and Caregivers

This summary will cover: Information about each rare inherited metabolic disease Possible benefits of an HSCT What researchers have found about treating children who have one of these diseases with an HSCT using stem cells from a donor What an HSCT is and how it is done Possible risks of an HSCT

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: September 25, 2013

Interventionist versus expectant care for severe pre‐eclampsia before term

Women who develop pre‐eclampsia (high blood pressure and protein in the urine) before 34 weeks of pregnancy (early onset) are at risk of severe complications, and even death. These involve the woman's liver, kidneys, clotting system and cause neurological disturbances such as headache, visual disturbances, and exaggerated tendon reflexes. If the placenta is involved, this can cause growth restriction or reduced amniotic fluid, placing the baby at risk. The only known cure for pre‐eclampsia is delivery of the baby. Being born too early can in itself have problems for the baby, even with the administration of corticosteroids 24 to 48 hours beforehand to help mature the lungs. Some hospitals follow a policy of early delivery within 24 to 48 hours, interventionist management, whilst others prefer to delay delivery until it is no longer possible to safely stabilise the woman's condition, expectant management.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Antibiotics for treating bacterial vaginosis in pregnancy

Bacteria are normally present in the birth canal and are useful in maintaining the health of the vagina. However, if the numbers of some of the bacteria increase, this is called bacterial vaginosis. For some women, there are no symptoms but for others it may cause an unpleasant discharge and may cause some babies to be born too early. These babies can suffer from problems related to their immaturity both in the weeks following birth such as breathing difficulty, infection and bleeding within the brain as well as problems when growing up such as poor growth, chronic lung disease and delayed development.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Wilms Tumor and Other Childhood Kidney Tumors Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of Wilms tumor.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: June 26, 2015

Testing Treatments: Better Research for Better Healthcare. 2nd edition

How do we know whether a particular treatment really works? How reliable is the evidence? And how do we ensure that research into medical treatments best meets the needs of patients? These are just a few of the questions addressed in a lively and informative way in Testing Treatments. Brimming with vivid examples, Testing Treatments will inspire both patients and professionals.

Pinter & Martin.

Version: 2011

Smart Health Choices: Making Sense of Health Advice

This book aims to help consumers and practitioners develop the skills to assess health advice – and hopefully to make decisions that will improve the quality of their care. For some people, making better-informed decisions could be life saving. We hope that it will be useful if you are struggling to come to terms with an illness or injury, and the best ways of managing it. Or you may simply want to lead a healthier life, and may be wondering how to make sense of the often conflicting flood of health information that deluges us every day, through the media, and from our friends and health practitioners.

Hammersmith Press.

Version: 2008

Gangliosides for acute ischaemic stroke

There is no evidence that treatment with ganglioside reduces disability after stroke. Drugs which can reduce disability in people who survive an acute stroke are needed. Gangliosides are a component of cells membranes and can protect neurons against injuries and enhance their growth. Ganglioside treatment has been tested in many clinical trials, mostly on patients with stroke. The results of these studies were inconclusive. This review shows that there is no evidence in favour of this treatment for patients with acute stroke. Gangliosides can rarely cause damage to nerves (acute neuropathy).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Drug treatment for small abdominal aortic aneurysms

An aneurysm is an abnormal localised widening (dilatation) of an artery. The most common place for such a dilatation is the abdominal aorta. This is the main artery linking the heart to the lower limbs and the organs of the abdomen, and a dilatation here is termed an abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). About 4% of men over 55 years of age have an AAA, but it is less common in women. Aneurysms over 55 mm in diameter carry a high risk of rupture, and rupture carries a high risk of death. To reduce the risks, screening programmes using ultrasound scanning have been introduced for selected groups in a number of countries. Patients with aneurysms over 55 mm are then evaluated for elective aneurysm repair. For aneurysms at or below the 55 mm cut‐off, the current treatment is 'watchful waiting', where the aneurysm is repeatedly scanned over time to see if it is enlarging. This review aimed to identify medical treatments which could slow or even reverse aneurysm growth, and thus delay or avoid the need for elective surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment for prominent lower front teeth in children

There are many different ways of treating patients with prominent (or sticking out) lower front teeth. Orthodontic treatment for children and adolescents is one method used. This review, carried out by authors of the Cochrane Oral Health Group, sought to establish which is the most effective type of orthodontic treatment when carried out in childhood; whether these treatments reduce the need for treatment as an adult; and at what age these treatments are best carried out to ensure that changes made to the shape of the jaw and the positioning of the teeth last until the end of growth and can be maintained into adulthood.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

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