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Antenatal day care units versus hospital admission for women with pregnancy complications

Many women experience complications during pregnancy such as high blood pressure, threatened early labour or abnormal and heavy bleeding (haemorrhage). Admission to hospital may be necessary but can be disruptive to the mother and her family. Often tests and monitoring are needed so that the condition of the mother and baby can be assessed and treatment can be provided. Sometimes this care can be given in day care units to avoid the need for an overnight stay in hospital. The review compares day care units with hospital admission or routine care. Three trials, involving 504 pregnant women with high blood pressure or preterm prelabour rupture of the membranes, were included in the review. The findings were that women receiving day care had to make more visits to hospital as outpatients but were less likely to stay in hospital overnight. Care in day units did not seem to affect other outcomes for mothers and babies or increase or reduce interventions in labour; although women in one trial were less likely to have their labours induced if they received day care. Two studies provided evidence that women preferred day care to hospital admission and no women expressed a preference for more inpatient care; most women in both groups felt they had received good care and were satisfied with it.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Centre‐based day care for children younger than five years of age in low‐ and middle‐income countries

This review evaluated the effects of centre‐based day care for children younger than five years of age in low‐ and middle‐income countries (as defined by the World Bank 2011). We considered the following outcomes: children's cognitive and psychosocial development, prevalence and incidence of infectious diseases among them and the economic situation of parents. We defined 'centre‐based day care' as the supervision of children in a publicly accessible location.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Medical day hospital care for the elderly versus alternative forms of care

Day hospitals are one way of delivering healthcare to older people. They are out‐patient facilities which older patients attend for a full or near full day and receive multidisciplinary health care ‘under one roof.’ Sixteen trials involving 3689 participants were included in this review and compared day hospitals with other comprehensive services (including inpatient and outpatient services), home based care and no comprehensive services. Attendance at a day hospital offers benefits compared to providing no treatment which include reducing the risk of needing more help with daily activities such as washing or dressing. Furthermore, patients are less likely to suffer one of the following: dying, being institutionalised or becoming more dependent on others. There is no apparent benefit when day hospitals are compared with other comprehensive services or home care. The economic value of day hospitals when compared with other health care services remains unclear.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Health care in Germany: The German health care system

In Germany, health care is based on a decentralized and self-governing system run by a number of different players. This information explains the organizations that are involved in the health care system, the system’s structure, and how that structure has changed over time.The German health care system is divided into three main areas: outpatient care, inpatient care (the hospital sector), and rehabilitation facilities.The institutions responsible for running the health care system include the associations and representatives of various providers and professions, health insurers, regulatory bodies and the Federal Ministry of Health.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 6, 2015

Interventions to improve the care of adolescents with long term health conditions as they transfer from child to adult health services.

‘Transition’ describes the process of planning and moving from children’s to adults’ services. If this process is not well managed, adolescents with long‐term health conditions sometimes fall into a gap in services, which can lead to deterioration in their health.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

Health care in Germany: At the hospital

Certain treatments and surgical procedures are only possible in a hospital where a team of doctors, nurses and other medical staff can provide more attentive care. Hospitals have more specialized equipment and medical experts from different fields.If you have to go for hospital treatment, your doctor will usually recommend a suitable hospital nearby. You will be given a referral slip from your doctor to turn in at the hospital.Specialists who have more experience with a particular therapy may be needed for specific procedures and treatments, which is something that not every hospital can provide. If you have statutory health insurance, treatment costs will only be covered at hospitals that have been approved by statutory health insurers. Some hospitals are private and only admit patients who are privately insured or willing to cover the costs themselves.If you do not require emergency treatment and can schedule your stay, there is time to look for information on different hospitals. Web-based summaries of quality reports on different hospitals can be useful here. These specialized search engines can help you find different types of information, such as which fields of medicine a particular hospital specializes in or how often they perform certain types of surgery.A commented list of links to help you find health service providers in Germany is available at www.eu-patienten.de. This website, provided by the National Association of Statutory Health Insurance Funds, includes information for EU citizens looking to have treatment in Germany.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 6, 2015

Health care in Germany: At the doctor’s

When people in Germany need medical advice or treatment, their family doctor’s practice (Hausarztpraxis) is usually their first port of call. In most cases you are free to choose which doctor to see. Read on to find out what you need to know when choosing a doctor, how you can prepare for an appointment, and which medical services are available.In Germany, general medicine, internal medicine and pediatric medicine offices are also known as “Hausarztpraxen” (family doctor’s practices). If necessary, family doctors may refer you to a “Facharztpraxis” (specialist practice) where the doctors are specialized in another field, such as gynecology, mental illness, or conditions affecting your ears, nose and throat (ENT). It is also possible to go straight to a specialist first.In some cases it can be a good idea to get a second opinion (see what a different doctor says), for instance if your diagnosis is not clear or you are faced with a difficult decision about treatment options.Doctors, psychotherapists and people working in doctors’ practices must respect “doctor-patient confidentiality” In other words, they are not allowed to share information about you with anyone else – not even your family members or partner – without your permission.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 6, 2015

Know Your Chances: Understanding Health Statistics

The goal of this book is to help you better understand health information by teaching you about the numbers behind the messages—the medical statistics on which the claims are based. The book will also familiarize you with risk charts, which are designed to help you put your health concerns in perspective. By learning to understand the numbers and knowing what questions to ask, you’ll be able to see through the hype and find the credible information—if any—that remains.

University of California Press.

Version: 2008
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Smart Health Choices: Making Sense of Health Advice

This book aims to help consumers and practitioners develop the skills to assess health advice – and hopefully to make decisions that will improve the quality of their care. For some people, making better-informed decisions could be life saving. We hope that it will be useful if you are struggling to come to terms with an illness or injury, and the best ways of managing it. Or you may simply want to lead a healthier life, and may be wondering how to make sense of the often conflicting flood of health information that deluges us every day, through the media, and from our friends and health practitioners.

Hammersmith Press.

Version: 2008
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Health care services instead of admission to hospital for young people or children with mental health problems

Many countries place emphasis on providing mental health services in the least restrictive setting, recognizing that some children will need to be admitted to hospital.  As a result there are a range of mental health services to manage young people with serious mental health problems in community or outpatient settings who are at risk of being admitted to hospital.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

In‐service training for health professionals to improve care of seriously ill newborns and children in low‐income countries

This is the first update of the original Cochrane review, whose objective was to find out whether additional emergency care training programmes can improve the ability of health workers in poor countries to care for seriously ill newborns and children admitted to hospitals. Researchers at The Cochrane Collaboration searched for all studies that could answer this question and found two relevant studies.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Hand washing promotion for preventing diarrhoea

This Cochrane Review summarises trials evaluating the effects of promoting hand washing on the incidence of diarrhoea among children and adults in daycare centres, schools, communities, or hospitals. After searching for relevant trials up to 27 May 2015, we included 22 randomized controlled trials conducted in both high‐income countries (HICs) and low‐ and middle‐income countries (LMICs). These trials enrolled 69,309 children and 148 adults.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Spirituality in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the influence of spirituality and religion on individuals who have cancer. Various approaches for management and intervention are discussed.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: May 18, 2015

Planning the Transition to End-of-Life Care in Advanced Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the preparation needed by health care providers, patients, and families for the transition to end-of-life care in advanced cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: November 24, 2015

Nutrition in Cancer Care (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the causes and management of nutritional problems that occur in patients with cancer.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: January 8, 2016

Email used by health professionals to send patients/caregivers information on promoting health and preventing disease

Email is widely used in many sectors and lots of people use it in their day to day lives. The use of email in health care is not yet common. One use for it is for health professionals to send patients/caregivers information on how to be healthy and avoid disease. This review examines how patients, healthcare professionals and health services may be affected by using email in this way.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Educational games for mental health professionals

Standard teaching techniques in health care often contain traditional didactic elements. Learning from traditional didactic teaching has never been a very active process and can subsequently be tedious and tiring. In this review we wished to investigate the effects of more interactive ways of teaching mental health professionals. We identified one relevant trial which, although very small and short, did suggest quite a considerable short term positive effect for the more interactive teaching approach. On average, mental health nursing students who had been taught using this method scored six points more in a follow‐up test than students allocated to the standard teaching techniques.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

How can Informed Health help?

Fortunately, many health-related decisions can be made without specifically looking for information. But it is not always easy to decide what to do, particularly when making decisions about a serious illness or a difficult therapy. Here we describe how we take these things into account on our website Informed Health.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: February 2, 2012

Same day surgery compared to overnight stay for treatment of cataract caused by old age

The lens in the eyes can become cloudy with age (called cataracts), leading to blurry vision or total vision loss. Cataracts can be surgically removed by breaking up the lens and removing the pieces with a needle (a process called phacoemulsification), followed by the placing of an artificial lens to restore vision. This method of surgery is quick and together with a shorter recovery period has made the possibility of day surgery a reality. We wanted to find out whether operation in a day care unit was as effective and safe as staying overnight after an operation to replace the lens and regain better vision. Furthermore, we were interested to know what the side effects, risks and complications were of the two different approaches. We took into account improvement in quality of life and differences in costs.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Mobile phone text messaging to help patients with HIV infection take their antiretroviral medications every day

More than 34 million people are presently living with HIV infection. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) can help these people to live longer, healthier lives, but because of side‐effects, adherence (taking these medications every day) can be difficult. Mobile phone text‐messaging has the potential to help promote adherence in these patients.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

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