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Antibody therapy is better that steroid treatment for reversing the first acute rejection episode, however antibody‐treated patients are more likely to experience an immediate reaction of fever, chills and malaise than those receiving steroid.

Kidney transplantation is the treatment of choice for most patients with end‐stage renal disease (ESRD). Strategies to increase donor organ availability and to prolong the transplanted kidney's survival have become priorities in kidney transplantation. Fifteen to 35% of all kidney transplant recipients will experience one episode of acute rejection in the first year. Options for treating these episodes include pulsed steroid therapy, the use of an antibody preparation, the alteration of background immunosuppression, or combinations of these options. This review investigated the role of mono‐ or polyclonal antibodies (Ab) used to treat acute rejection in kidney transplant recipients. Twenty one trials (1387 patients) were included. Any antibody was better than steroid treatment for reversing the first acute rejection episode and preventing graft loss, but showed no significant difference in reversing steroid‐resistant rejection episodes. Antibody‐treated patients were 28 times more likely to experience an immediate reaction of fever, chills and malaise than those receiving steroid treatment. The main limitation of this review is that none of the included trials were performed using contemporary immunosuppressive regimens, with the most recent study performed in 2000.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs for the common cold

We carried out a review on the effects of non‐steroidal anti‐inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) for treating pain or respiratory symptoms such as cough associated with the common cold.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Sipuleucel-T (Provenge) for metastatic prostate cancer: Overview

Sipuleucel-T (trade name: Provenge) has been approved in Germany since September 2013 for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer in men who have no or only few symptoms and do not need chemotherapy yet.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 2, 2015

Low back pain: Warning signs of serious problems

Low back pain usually does not have a clearly identifiable cause, is not dangerous and goes away on its own. Only rarely is it caused by a serious problem such as a broken bone or infection. It is often possible to tell based on particular symptoms and warning signs.The following may be warning signs of a serious health problem. If you have low back pain together with one or more of these warning signs, you should have a doctor give you a careful examination:Pain that radiates into the legs and is accompanied by numbness, tingling or paralysis: This kind of radiating pain may be a sign of potential damage to nerves that leave the spinal cord at the base of the spine.Problems with urination or bowel movements: These symptoms, as well as numbness around the buttocks (perineum and anus), can be signs of potential damage to the nerves in the tailbone region. This is a medical emergency and requires immediate medical attention.Fever or chills: These symptoms may occur in connection with a spinal infection.Unexplained weight loss, physical weakness and pain that gets worse when you lie on your back: These symptoms may be a sign of a tumor. This may be a benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous) tumor around the spine, or metastases that have spread from malignant tumors elsewhere, for example breast or prostate cancer.It is also important to see a doctor if you have low back pain following an accident. These warning signs do not necessarily mean that you have a serious condition. That can only be confirmed after you have seen your doctor. Your overall health and other aspects like your age or risk factors for certain diseases such as osteoporosis also play a role.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 2, 2015

Antifungal agents for infants and children with invasive fungal infections

Invasive fungal infections are a significant problem for children whose immune system is not functioning properly. The majority of the children have cancer. Antifungal medications can be given when these children develop a fever (for example a fever occurring when the white cells or neutrophils are low during chemotherapy) or when an infection has been formally identified (as in candidaemia, candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis). The antifungal agents that were compared appear equally efficacious. Pooling the data from the few studies that were available suggest kidney damage was less likely with a lipid preparation of amphotericin B compared with conventional amphotericin B. It is reasonable to recommend a lipid preparation of amphotericin B, if cost permits. No significant differences have been observed in children when other antifungal agents have been compared. More studies in children evaluating available antifungal are required to further clarify any benefits with regard to the risk of dying, prospects of complete recovery and drug toxicities.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Which amphotericin B formulation better preserves kidney function among people with fungal infection?

Fungal infections can cause ill health, and in some cases, death. Conventional amphotericin B has been used for many years to treat fungal infection. Although effective, this drug can cause kidney damage in about eight of every ten patients treated. People with kidney damage have longer stays in hospital, increased healthcare costs, and higher numbers of deaths.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Methadone at tapered doses for the management of opioid withdrawal

Abuse of opioid drugs and dependence on them causes major health and social issues that include transmission of HIV and hepatitis C with injection, increased crime and costs for health care and law enforcement, family disruption and lost productivity. Addicts, particularly those aged 15 to 34 years, are also at higher risk of death. Managed withdrawal (or detoxification) is used as the first step in treatment. Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, chills, muscle pain (myalgia) and weakness, tremor, lethargy and drowsiness, restlessness and irritability, nausea and vomiting and diarrhoea. Persisting sleep disturbances and drug craving can continue for weeks and months after detoxification and often lead to a return to opioid use. The number of addicts who complete detoxification tends to be low, and rates of relapse are high.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Body warming of people undergoing surgery to avoid complications and increase comfort after surgery

We reviewed the effects of warming the body by transferring heat through the skin surface to prevent complications caused by unintended low body temperature (hypothermia) in adults undergoing surgery.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2016

The use of the monoclonal antibody rituximab in patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS)

This is an update of the Cochrane review "Rituximab for relapsing‐remitting multiple sclerosis" (first published in The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 12).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Common colds: Overview

The first signs of a common cold often include sneezing and a sore throat. By the time colds are in full swing, they can make you feel quite weak and ill. But, unlike the flu, common colds are harmless, and bothersome symptoms can be effectively relieved.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 23, 2014

Bisphosphonate therapy for children and adolescents with secondary osteoporosis.

‐ may not lead to any difference in bone mineral density (bone thickness and strength).

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

What is an inflammation?

When a wound swells up, turns red and hurts, it may be a sign of inflammation. Inflammation is an immune system response. This might be a reaction to bacteria growing in a wound or a splinter piercing your finger, for example. Inflammations develop when the immune system defends itself.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 7, 2015

Can oseltamivir (Tamiflu) prevent complications?

In some groups of people, having the flu can sometimes lead to serious complications such as pneumonia. Drugs like oseltamivir (trade name: Tamiflu) aim to prevent things from turning serious. But research so far has only shown that taking Tamiflu might make general flu symptoms go away a bit sooner.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 1, 2013

Strategies to increase the ownership and use of insecticide‐treated bednets to prevent malaria

Researchers in the Cochrane Collaboration conducted a review of the effect of different strategies to increase people’s ownership and use of insecticide‐treated bednets to prevent malaria. In February 2013 they identified 10 relevant studies. Their findings are summarized below.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2015

Fever in children: When is it a good idea to go to the doctor?

When children have a fever, the cause is usually a harmless viral infection. Fever in children is only very rarely a sign of a serious illness. But it is important for parents to be able to tell the difference.If a child has a fever, parents may ask themselves the following questions: Is it something serious? Should I call the doctor? Does the fever need to be lowered?Parents are in the best position to judge whether their child is behaving abnormally – for instance reacting differently to them or to a toy. The child may be much less active, feel very unwell or stop drinking. Their judgment and experience are very important, and can also be of help to the pediatrician.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 18, 2013

How much protection do flu vaccinations offer?

In most years healthy people are unlikely to get the flu (“influenza”), whether or not they are vaccinated. Vaccination can reduce the risk of getting the flu by more than half, though. This can make a big difference in years when the risk of infection is high.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 18, 2013

Neck pain: Overview

Neck pain can make it difficult to move your head, and may radiate into your arms and head. The pain usually goes away after a few days or weeks, but can last much longer in some people.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: December 17, 2015

Scarlet fever: Overview

A doctor can usually diagnose scarlet fever fairly quickly based on its typical rash and a dark-red tongue, sometimes referred to as a “strawberry tongue.” Serious complications are very rare nowadays, and because scarlet fever is caused by bacteria, antibiotics are an effective treatment.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: June 30, 2014

Wellbeing during menopause

Although different women cope differently with menopause, severe menopause symptoms can greatly affect your wellbeing. But the higher risk of certain diseases after middle age is mainly due to increasing age, not hormonal changes.Hot flashes (also called hot flushes), sweats and vaginal dryness are the most common menopause symptoms. Hot flashes and sweats at night can disturb sleep. This can make women have difficulty concentrating and feel tired during the day.But not all physical and emotional changes during this phase of life are due to menopause. Changes in mood, emotional wellbeing, problems with concentration and memory, and physical problems like back ache are not directly related to menopause. They can happen at any other age and be caused by many other things too. The higher risk of diseases such as osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease are also related to growing older.So menopause itself does not usually have any direct health consequences. But it can be a good time to think about how to stay healthy or improve your health in older age.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: August 24, 2016

Medicines for Type 2 Diabetes: A Review of the Research for Adults

This summary covers the research on the benefits and possible side effects of medicines to lower or control your blood sugar. It will help you talk with your doctor or other health care professional to decide which medicines are best for you.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: June 30, 2011

Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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