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Results: 5

Lifestyle modification strategies for managing obstructive sleep apnoea

Obstructive sleep apnoea happens when breathing is either stopped or reduced during sleep because of a narrowing or blockage of the upper airway (passage to the lungs). It causes loud snoring and occasional apnoea (stopping breathing). It can lead to daytime sleepiness and may cause, hypertension, stroke and road accidents. Lifestyle modification, especially weight loss, sleep hygiene and exercise, are often recommended. These could help by relieving pressure on the upper airway, and increasing muscle tone in the airway. However, the review found no trials to assess the effects of these strategies, and more research is needed.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2009

Heated humidifiers compared to heat and moisture exchangers for ventilated adults and children

When mechanical ventilation is used to keep critically ill people breathing effectively, the upper airway must be humidified by artificial means. Heated humidification and heat and moisture exchangers are the most commonly used methods of artificial humidification. We undertook this review to determine whether either of these methods of humidification was more effective than the other in preventing complications in people who are being mechanically ventilated. When data from the 33 included trials, with 2833 participants, were analysed there was some evidence that the prevalence of pneumonia may be lowered by using heat and moisture exchangers that capture less moisture. A heat and moisture exchanger may however also increase blockage of the artificial airway. Findings of this review are limited by the considerable differences between studies and there was little information about these methods of humidification in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Anti‐inflammatory drugs for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in children

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is the partial or complete blockage of the upper airways during sleep and affects about 1% to 4% of children. The most common underlying reason for OSA in children is enlarged tonsils. Surgical removal of the enlarged tonsils is the therefore currently the treatment standard. In milder cases of OSA, treatment with anti‐inflammatory drugs to reduce the size of the tonsils is an alternative to surgery. The aim of this review was to evaluate the effectiveness of anti‐inflammatory drugs for the treatment of OSA in children between one and 16 years of age. A comprehensive literature search identified three relevant studies. Very limited evidence from these studies suggests that steroids inhaled through the nose may reduce symptoms of OSA in children. Further studies are needed to evaluate anti‐inflammatory drugs for OSA in children.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Cardiopulmonary Syndromes (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about common conditions that produce chest symptoms. The cardiopulmonary syndromes addressed in this summary are cancer-related dyspnea, malignant pleural effusion, pericardial effusion, and superior vena cava syndrome.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: March 25, 2013

Unusual Cancers of Childhood (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of unusual cancers of childhood such as cancers of the head and neck, chest, abdomen, reproductive system, skin, and others.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: July 18, 2014

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Blockage of upper airway
    Blockage of the upper airway occurs when the upper breathing passages become narrowed or blocked, making it hard to breathe. Areas in the upper airway that can be affected are the windpipe (trachea), voice box (larynx) or throat (pharynx).
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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