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Results: 17

Community mental health teams for people with severe mental illnesses and disordered personality

Since the 1950s there has been a trend to close institutions of care for people who are mentally unwell. In addition, government policy has sought to reduce the number of hospital beds available in favour of care being provided in the community to enable people to live more independent lives. The aim of Community Mental Health Teams (CMHTs) is to bring a specialist care package to people in the community. We reviewed the available evidence on CMHTs compared with standard non‐team community care. We found only three trials which indicated some benefit in terms of acceptability of treatment, but overall the evidence for CMHTs is inadequate and further trials are needed to determine its effectiveness.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Drug treatment for borderline personality disorder

Many people with borderline personality disorder (BPD) receive medical treatment. However, there are no drugs available for BPD treatment specifically. A certain drug is most often chosen because of its known properties in the treatment of associated disorders, or BPD symptoms that are also known to be present in other conditions, such as depressive, psychotic, or anxious disorders. BPD itself is characterised by a pervasive pattern of instability in affect regulation (with symptoms such as inappropriate anger, chronic feelings of emptiness, and affective instability), impulse control (symptoms: self‐mutilating or suicidal behaviour, ideation, or suicidal threats to others), interpersonal problems (symptoms: frantic efforts to avoid abandonment, patterns of unstable relationships with idealization and depreciation of others), and cognitive‐perceptual problems (symptoms: identity disturbance in terms of self perception, transient paranoid thoughts or feelings of dissociation in stressful situations). This review aimed to summarise the current evidence of drug treatment effects in BPD from high‐quality randomised trials.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Short‐term psychodynamic psychotherapies for common mental disorders

Common mental disorders include anxiety disorders, depressive disorders, stress‐related physical conditions, certain behaviour disorders and personality disorders. People with these disorders tend to have problems handling difficult emotions and often respond with physical and psychic symptoms or avoidant behavioural patterns. Such patterns and emotional responses are theoretically treatable by short‐term psychodynamic psychotherapies (STPP) because these therapies aim to improve long‐ and short‐term problems with emotion processing, behaviour and communication/relationships with others. STPP is thought to work by making people aware of emotions, thoughts and problems with communication/relationships that are related to past and recent trauma. This in turn helps to correct problems with emotions and relationships with others.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2014

Therapies for Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Review of the Research

This summary explains treatment-resistant depression. It tells you what the most recent research says about the treatments available when medicines do not help. It gives questions to ask about these treatment options.

Comparative Effectiveness Review Summary Guides for Consumers [Internet] - Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US).

Version: March 19, 2012

Fact sheet: Depression

We all feel unhappy and listless every now and then. And we have all felt down or even desperate at some point in our lives. Feelings like this can be triggered by various events, such as a traumatic experience like losing a loved one, or finding out about a serious illness. But everyday things like conflicts, disappointments or unfulfilled wishes can make you feel that way too. Having phases where you feel down and sad are a normal part of life, and people usually feel better again after a while.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: January 17, 2013

Antiepileptic drugs for treating recurrent aggression

Various medicines, which are collectively termed 'antiepileptic drugs', have been used to treat persistent aggression. This review systematically examines the evidence supporting this practice. From the evidence available, we were unable to draw any firm conclusion about using these medicines to treat aggression. Four antiepileptic drugs (valproate/divalproex, carbamazepine, oxcarbazepine and phenytoin) helped to reduce aggression in at least one study. However, for three of these drugs (valproate, carbamazepine and phenytoin) we found at least one other study where there was no significant improvement. Further research is needed to clarify which antiepileptic drugs are effective for whom. Such research is best carried out using carefully designed clinical trials. Such trials need to take account of the type of aggression displayed, the severity of the aggression, and any other disorders experienced by the participants.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2010

Interventions for the treatment of burning mouth syndrome

There is insufficient evidence to show the effect of painkillers, hormones or antidepressants for 'burning mouth syndrome' but there is some evidence that learning to cope with the disorder, anticonvulsants and alpha‐lipoic acid may help.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2012

Treatment of Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome

The optimum treatment for Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome has yet to be established. Lennox‐Gastaut syndrome is a seizure (epilepsy) disorder that is commonly associated with behavioural and mental health problems. Many different treatments are currently used in the treatment of this disorder and many more have been tried in the past, often with little success. The review of trials found that there was no evidence to suggest that any one drug was more effective than another in the treatment of this disorder in terms of controlling the different seizure types. More research is needed to compare the therapies currently available.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2013

Antenatal psychosocial assessment for reducing perinatal mental health morbidity

Women can develop mental health problems during pregnancy or at childbirth and over the following year. These problems range from depression (both minor and major), anxiety disorders, post‐traumatic stress disorder to bipolar disorder, schizophrenia and psychosis (puerperal psychosis). Life stresses such as bereavement, separation, unemployment, illness, moving house, migration, lack of social support networks, a past history of psychological or psychiatric disorders, history of physical, emotional or sexual abuse, drug or alcohol abuse, dysfunctional personality or coping styles and parenting behaviours can contribute to their onset. Obstetric factors such as timing and type of delivery and infant temperament can also play a role. Disorders may become chronic and carry over to future pregnancies. The mother’s mood during pregnancy and mental illness can impact on the development of the baby both during pregnancy and after birth. Assessing women for psychosocial risk factors and symptoms of distress during regular pregnancy checks gives the opportunity to link women with appropriate services.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2008

Adjustment to Cancer: Anxiety and Distress (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the difficult emotional responses many cancer patients experience. This summary focuses on normal adjustment issues, psychosocial distress, and adjustment disorders.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: October 4, 2013

Obsessive-compulsive disorder does not have to rule your life

We all know the worrying feeling that we have forgotten to do something, like turning off the oven or locking the door. It is sometimes a good idea to double-check if you are not sure. But some people are so worried about forgetting something that they feel the urge to check again and again, an urge that can eventually take over their lives. Some people may constantly wash their hands because they are afraid of germs. Others cannot stop counting things. Whatever their ritual is, people who have obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) just cannot stop doing these things.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: April 26, 2012

Intensive case management for people with severe mental illness

Until the 1970s it was common for those suffering from these disorders to stay in an institution for most of their lives, but now in most of the countries of the world, they are managed in the community with one of several different styles of intervention. Intensive Case Management (ICM) is one such intervention. It consists of management of the mental health problem and the rehabilitation and social support needs of the person concerned, over an indefinite period of time, by a team of people who have a fairly small group of clients (less than 20). It also offers 24 hour help and sees clients in a non‐clinical setting.

Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews: Plain Language Summaries [Internet] - John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Version: 2011

Brain tumors: What benefit does a PET scan have in recurrence of high-grade gliomas?

Whether positron emission tomography (PET) for detecting recurrence improves the treatment of people who have high-grade glioma, has not been studied in suitable trials. It also remains unclear how accurately recurrence can be determined using PET.

Informed Health Online [Internet] - Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care (IQWiG).

Version: May 13, 2011

Family Caregivers in Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the challenges faced by family caregivers of cancer patients. This summary focuses on typical caregiver roles and concerns, and helpful interventions for caregivers.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 1, 2013

Childhood Astrocytomas Treatment (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the treatment of childhood astrocytomas.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 22, 2014

Late Effects of Treatment for Childhood Cancer (PDQ®): Patient Version

Expert-reviewed information summary about the health problems that continue or appear after cancer treatment has ended.

PDQ Cancer Information Summaries [Internet] - National Cancer Institute (US).

Version: August 22, 2014

Smart Health Choices: Making Sense of Health Advice

This book aims to help consumers and practitioners develop the skills to assess health advice – and hopefully to make decisions that will improve the quality of their care. For some people, making better-informed decisions could be life saving. We hope that it will be useful if you are struggling to come to terms with an illness or injury, and the best ways of managing it. Or you may simply want to lead a healthier life, and may be wondering how to make sense of the often conflicting flood of health information that deluges us every day, through the media, and from our friends and health practitioners.

Hammersmith Press.

Version: 2008

Medical Encyclopedia

  • Avoidant personality disorder
    Avoidant personality disorder is a mental health condition in which a person has a lifelong pattern of feeling very shy, inadequate, and sensitive to rejection.
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Systematic Reviews in PubMed

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